How to Identify the Right Threaded Connection

How to Identify the Right Threaded Connection

Identifying the right threaded connection
Hydraulic systems depend on fluid ports, connectors, and thread adapters to appropriately seal the equipment. Correctly identifying the right thread or connection type is critical to making sure that your hydraulic seals function properly, thus enabling leak-free system reliability and optimal pressure holding capacity.

However, if you choose the wrong type of thread, it can impair the sealing ability of the connection. This can lead to system damage, leakage, and potentially device failure, all of which cause more downtime and costly repairs or replacement parts.

Maintenance technicians and engineers can avoid these issues by using the fast, proven method of thread identification presented in this blog.

What is the Purpose of a Threaded Connection?

All threaded connections involve mating male and female halves together to create a connection to hold the threads together. This is necessary to create a proper hydraulic seal, though the threads themselves often do not form the seal itself.

Parallel, non-tapered threads are generally the recommended thread type for hydraulic systems. All parallel threads are meant to do is pull metal pieces together to allow the sealing mechanisms to work. The actual sealing mechanism is typically an O-ring, metal on metal compression, an elastomeric seal, a bonded seal (washer with a gasket attached to it), or a gasket (mostly in flanged threaded connections).

However, in certain thread types, such as National/British pipe taper threads, the thread can act as part of the sealing mechanism by screwing the metal in so hard that it deforms and seals the connection. The NFPA denounces tapered threads, though they are often still used for the sake of convenience.

Threaded connection with male and female halves

What are the Problems with Misidentifying a Connection Type?

The trouble with identifying thread types can lead to wasted time as operators struggle to get the right thread. This leads to increased downtime and lost profit.

However, the situation quickly gets even worse if you choose the wrong type of thread. Unfortunately, visual inspections alone are not always enough to see if a connection type is wrong.

When trying to mate two non-similar thread types, the threads can bind up because the pitch or the diameters are off. The threads will either not match up properly, or you could risk forcing them together, which would bind them together and not allow the sealing mechanism to compress.

What makes things even more confusing is that even matching up thread sizes is not a guarantee that your connection is correct. For example, SAE O-ring Boss and JIC fittings use the same sizes of thread, but the sealing mechanism is different. An operator can screw the threads together and think everything is fine, only to find out later when something goes wrong that it was never sealed. You can also ruin the connection if you cross threads, even with the same thread size.

All of these problems can lead to leaks, contamination, and device failure. Fortunately, you significantly mitigate the chance of these issues if you can identify the correct connection, to begin with.

What are the Main Types of Threaded Connections?

While many different types of threaded connections exist, operators and maintenance technicians can streamline their work by focusing on the connections most commonly seen in hydraulic systems. These types of connections include:

  • American Connections
    • NPTF, NPSM, SAE O-Ring Boss, O-ring Face Seal, and JIC
  • Metric
    • Metric Compression, Metric O-Ring Boss, Metric Taper
  • British
    • BSPP, BSPT
  • Japanese
    • JIS

Uncommon Connection Types

There are many uncommon connection types that are used throughout the hydraulic industry. Here are just a few examples. Although they are used less and less nowadays, certain older equipment may utilize Whitworth thread types, similar to British standard pipe threads. If you are working on military-grade systems or other highly regulated equipment, you may see the AN thread type, which is a variation of JIC used by the military.

Threaded hose connector measurements

How to Identify the Right Threaded Connection

If you know what to look for and the steps to take, identifying which type of threaded connection you need can be a rather efficient process. Here’s how to quickly identify the right type of threaded fittings:

Visually Identify the Sealing Mechanism

Looking at the connection type is the first step to any inspection. This will point you in the right direction and narrow down your options, crossing out options that are noticeably different. In some cases, the seal will be so unique that you only have one option.

  • Is it a cone-shaped seal? – JIC, SAE 45, NPSM, BSPP, JIS, Metric Compression, Komatsu, Metric Ball Seat
  • Is there an O-ring? – O-ring Face Seal, SAE O-ring Boss, Code 61 & Code 62 4 Bolt Flange, Metric O-Ring Boss, BSPP
  • Is the thread tapered? – NPT, BSPT, or Metric Taper

Measure and Compare

Typically, you will have a quite few different options based on your visual inspection. Finding the right connection then becomes a matter of comparing the designs of each type of connection to the part itself. Taking measurements of inner and outer diameters, threads, and angles, and then comparing those values with the data on the applicable charts (Thread Identification Chart), will help to validate this process.

Select the Right Thread Size

For every connection size, there will be a unique thread size associated with it. The size of the connection is the port size – you need a thread size larger than the port size to accommodate the connection.

As an example, a 3/4″ JIC connection port size has a 1-1/16″ outside diameter thread. Engineering drawings often make the mistake of specifying a thread size and confusing it with the port size – this will not work. Our recommendation is to call out the connection size and if necessary for QC to make a note about thread size. In other words, call the connection a 3/4″ JIC, and if you need to, declare the threads as being 1-1/16″ threads.

Selecting the right thread size for hydraulic hoses

TCH: Hose and Fittings for Any Industrial Application

Want to ensure your threaded connection is the right one? As dedicated hosers, the experts at TCH can ensure that you get the best fittings for all of your industrial and hydraulic hose application requirements.

No operation is too complex. Contact the Hose Pros at TCH today for help with all of your hose and fitting needs.

TCH Industries

We. Are. Hosers.

Our focus and obsession is the distribution and fabrication of hose for industry and hose related products. Founded nearly 40 years ago, we are proudly owned and operated by the same family. Our manufacturing partners are some of the biggest and best names: Eaton, Parker, Dixon Valve, Hose Master, Brennen, Hannay Reels, and many others.

In short, we are a customer-centric hose company filled with happy professionals who can help you meet all your hose related needs. If you have any questions, please reach out to us by filling out the form below!

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Metal Hose Selection Guide

Metal Hose Selection Guide

Corrugated Metal Hose

AF4750 Metal HoseThe term metal hose refers to a hose where all components of the flexible portion of an assembly are stainless steel or any kind of corrosion-resistant metal. Similar to how we broke down hose in basic terms, a metal hose also consists of a tube and reinforcement.

The tube, in which 321 stainless steel is a standard material, carries the media; meanwhile, the wire braid—in this case, 304 stainless steel is more common—gives the tube strength to carry the pressure of the application. For better corrosion resistance, 316 stainless steel is the next step up; in more aggressive applications, we’ll also see materials such as Monel, Inconel, and Hastelloy.

End Connections

Ends for a metal hose assembly can be carbon or stainless steel, or any other metal that can be welded, brazed, or soldered to stainless steel. We talked briefly about end connections in Hose Pros 101, and those ends apply to metal hose assemblies as well. Some common end connections are NPT, pipe flanges, and pipe groove (Victaulic) connections. Like we do with industrial and hydraulic assemblies (as metal hose is just a more specified category within these categories), we also see JIC and cam and groove connections quite frequently. While these are just some of the most common connections, we can attach any metal fitting.

Temperature–Very High and Really Low

Unless specified, you may be wondering when you need to consider a metal hose versus a rubber or plastic hose for your assembly. One specification that stands out as an indicator for needing a metal hose is temperature. On one side, we have very hot applications, up to 1300°F. On this end of the spectrum, we have two considerations: outside environmental conditions, such as an assembly near a furnace in a steel mill; or, internal process conditions, like combustion gases or hot air for test facilities. Metal hose performs great at elevated temperatures, but be aware, stainless steel’s strength declines gradually as temperatures rise.

Working Pressure Derating Factor Chart

On the other hand, you may need to consider a metal hose for very cold (cryogenic) temperatures, -325°F and lower. Stainless steel improves mechanical properties as temperatures drop, even to cryogenic levels. The colder the temperature, the better they get. When thinking about your end connections, remember that carbon steel has an effective temperature range of 0-800°F; outside this range, its properties diminish quickly.

Permeation

Another property of metal hose is low permeation—zero leak rate. All rubber and plastic hoses will permeate molecules through the tubing over time. Functionally speaking, the metal hose has a zero leak rate.

Full Vacuum

Vacuum is another condition that could sway your decision between rubber and metal hose. Because of the low permeation, metal hoses can also be uniquely qualified for vacuum-rated applications. If you need to guarantee the highest level of vacuum rating, a metal hose is a great choice! Because of its corrugated design, it also handles full vacuum from a structural perspective.

Because metal hose can be made from the most chemically resistant metals, this can be another consideration point when deciding to choose metal hose. Metal hoses can withstand the most corrosive of environments. Keep in mind: One aspect of chemical resistance is thickness; a thick component has more material to corrode away and will inevitably last longer.

Abrasion

Close-up shot of a braided metal hose

Finally, it’s important to remember that metal hose is not particularly good with abrasion resistance, contrary to what you might think. The braid wires found in metal hose construction are only a few thousandths of an inch thick; if they’re put in an application where abrasion exists, they can quickly abrade and weaken until they eventually fail. In a scenario such as this, another layer of protection is required, such as a plastic spiral wrap or a strip-wound metal guard welded over the top of the assembly.

Metal hoses can also see this type of degradation from the high frequency of vibration in the system itself. The braid can cause abrasion on the crests of the corrugations. You can address an issue such as this by adding a sacrificial bronze braid layer in between the tube and stainless-steel braid; this softer bronze braid acts to protect both the tube and braid from degrading.

Hydroforming vs. Mechanical Forming

A metal hose starts as a flat strip, and it’s rolled and welded into a tube. This tube is then run through a corrugator to form the corrugation’s omega shape. There are two ways in which this is achieved:

  1. Hydroforming uses pressurized water to force the tube radially outward. This water pressure is uniform and, theoretically, reduces stress concentrations by applying an equal force on the material.
  2. Mechanical forming uses metal dies that stretch the metal onto the omega shape; this causes increased stress where the dies push and pull to stretch and bend the metal.

Other Considerations

Flexibility

Metal hoses can be manufactured with improved bend radius and flexibility. A compressed hose with a high number of corrugations per inch allows for greater flexibility and reduced force to bend.

Torsion

Keep in mind that a metal hose does not play well with torsion or twisting; this is something that can be avoided by proper installation. Using two wrenches to tighten a swivel nut will keep the hose free from torque. Proper routing is important too. Bending should occur in a single plane, as multi-planar bending creates torsion and decreases the service life of your hose.

High Velocity

The high velocity of the process fluid can be another consideration when looking into metal hoses. When referring to metal hoses, velocity is considered high at 75 ft/s or more. When your velocity goes above 75 ft/s, the media becomes turbulent, and the hose begins to whistle and vibrate. A flow liner of stripwound hose will smooth out the surface the media flows against and reduces turbulence.

Testing

At times, customers may require certain testing requirements. In the absence of a customer spec, every metal hose assembly built by a company using NAHAD standards receives an air-under-water test for one minute to look for leaks at the weld.

NAHAD suggestions include:

NAHAD Chart - Minimum Pneumatic Test Pressures

High-pressure pneumatic testing has been shown to result in fewer false-positive outcomes, meaning anything higher than 75 psi. Some pinhole leaks are so small they don’t register a bubble in one minute at pressures under 75 psi; however, increase the pressure, and bubbles form quicker. You can talk with your manufacturer to decide if this increased level of testing is right for you.

Welding & Inspection Certifications

This is another consideration driven by the customer. You must determine if your organization requires certification, as many do not. The most common certification for a metal hose is ASME Section IX, which tells you, as a buyer, that the weld procedure yields an effective weld, and that the welder is qualified to produce that weld. We won’t sugarcoat it: weld certifications are a labyrinth of understanding and interpretation. If you need details, give us a call and we’ll show you how deep the rabbit hole goes.

Weld inspections can also be performed by a certified inspector. Again, this is a customer-driven requirement. Inspections are normally non-destructive and simply visual. Increased levels use aids like liquid die penetrant to inspect the surface of the weld. Other non-destructive tests, like X-ray and ultrasonic, can detect discontinuities in the internal weld. There are other methods that must be discussed at the quoting and design stage but remember: visual inspection is a minimum requirement for all welds.

Oxygen Cleaning

Metal hose is a great choice when it comes to oxygen applications, especially industrial oxygen; however, certain care must be taken to ensure the hose is clean and free of hydrocarbons prior to use. Oxygen itself is not flammable, but in the presence of a fuel—typically hydrocarbons—it allows those fuels to ignite at lower temperatures and burn hotter. Metal hose is generally safe because the manufacturing process should not introduce fuel onto the surface of the hose.

When it comes to internal cleanliness, cleaning the inside of the hose and then capping the ends after it’s been fabricated can ensure the hose is safe to use. Cleaning methods and degree of cleanliness should be discussed during the quoting and design stage.

Minimum Length Requirements

Each size and style of hose has a minimum recommended live length, meaning the minimum length of the flexible portion of the hose must be able to flex and hold pressure, generally behaving like a hose. At lengths shorter than the minimum recommended live length, the hose tends to act more like a pipe, with little flexibility; these cannot be guaranteed to perform as expected. Most fabricators will make these short assemblies and simply state the length is shorter than recommended, which could void the warranty.

Metal Hose Manufacturers

Hose MasterOpinions vary on who makes the best metal hose. From a market dominance perspective, Hose Master is the most prominent. They have manufacturing facilities all over the U.S. and fabricating distributors in every city, so their product is readily available. They are constantly innovating their product and manufacturing processes, so their hose is always state-of-the-art. Penflex, US Hose, and others are also well represented in the U.S. and make a quality product.

As with many more specific applications, a metal hose has many different considerations. We’ve attempted to layout as much as possible, but each application differs from the next. If you find yourself needing assistance, call The Hose Pros at TCH for further guidance.

TCH Industries

We. Are. Hosers.

Our focus and obsession is the distribution and fabrication of hose for industry and hose related products. Founded nearly 40 years ago, we are proudly owned and operated by the same family. Our manufacturing partners are some of the biggest and best names: Eaton, Parker, Dixon Valve, Hose Master, Brennen, Hannay Reels, and many others.

In short, we are a customer-centric hose company filled with happy professionals who can help you meet all your hose related needs. If you have any questions, please reach out to us by filling out the form below!

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Hose Repair: Tips to Extend Hose Life Before Buying a New One

Hose Repair: Tips to Extend Hose Life Before Buying a New One

Leaking Garden Hose

Industrial Hose & Hydraulic Hose Repair

There are many reasons for repairing your high-quality hoses and hydraulic hoses rather than simply buying a new one. First, hoses and fittings can be expensive equipment, so repair is often a more economical option than buying a new one. Another reason for repairing a hose is that often you’re in a time-critical jam or can’t wait for a new hose, such as when your equipment has broken down on-site during a construction or farming operation. If you need to get up and running right away, fixing a hydraulic hose may be your best option, so you’ll probably find yourself running to the nearest hose repair shop.

Types of Damage

When it comes to industrial hoses, the types of damage fall into four basic categories:

  1. Damage immediately behind the hose end: Anywhere you have a crimp, or banded connection naturally undergoes more stress when there’s any movement on the hose.
  2. Local external damage: Such as a scratch, dent, or impact damage.
  3. Overall external wear due to dragging: For example, in cleaning applications where the hose is regularly moved around and dragged on the ground or concrete. The other cause of external abrasion is simply the constant vibration of the hose in high-pressure applications. The vibrations from the pump cause it to rub on the ground and wear the outer coating. There’s not much that can be done to prevent this kind of damage—it’s the nature of this type of application. 
  4. Long-term use fatigue: When your hose fails because it’s gotten old with use, you know you’ve gotten the maximum lifetime out of the hose.

Replacing the Crimp

It’s simple to replace a hose-end—but there are two caveats to this. First of all, it shortens the hose’s length, so it’s only helpful in installments where you can afford to have a slightly shorter hose.

Eaton Weatherhead Hose BundleSecondly, particularly in fixing a hydraulic hose, it’s necessary to have the proper crimp spec. The crimp fitting is designed to meet SAE standards that guarantee the fit between the hose and end so the hose can withstand the high pressure required. What this means is that you need to have the ends from the same manufacturer as the hose. If you go to an Eaton Weatherhead manufacturer or supplier like TCH, we can only fit the Eaton Weatherhead hoses with Weatherhead ends. If you have Parker, Gates, or any other type of hose, you need to find a repair house that features those parts. Even the smallest deviation in the connection between the hose and end can cause a deterioration in performance, or even worse, be hazardous.

Often, we get people in our shop who want us to crimp to a different hose type, but it simply won’t work. Any decent repair technician will send you away if they don’t have the right match. Before you take a trip down to the repair shop, make sure they stock the manufacturer you need.

Making a Break

Tractor with industrial water hoseOften hoses will incur damage from impacts, such as a tractor running over the hose, a falling rock, or other impact types. The easiest way to deal with that kind of damage is by cutting and mending the hose. There are two ways to cut and mend a high-pressure or hydraulic hose.

The first way is to use a mender by putting a physical piece inside the hose and crimping it on both ends. The other way to mend a hose is to put two threaded pieces on either side of the splice and put a coupler in the middle. Sometimes people try to repair their hoses with duct tape. That might reduce the spraying, but at 3000 PSI of pressured liquid inside of your hose, obviously, duct tape isn’t a safe solution.

The second method is to splice and repair when the damage gets too bad in one particular spot. It’s possible to splice multiple times, though it’s not ideal. Every time you splice and fix a hydraulic hose or any hose, it degrades the hose slightly, both in terms of the length and in terms of the pressure loss of the liquid running through the hose. For basic cleaning applications, that can be fine. But if you are doing high-pressure spraying for sanitation, you really don’t want to splice more than once. Why? As the hose’s function is reduced, the water pressure goes down, and the time for cleaning goes up.

We’ve seen hoses with as many as six splice and repair joints, which may seem like it’s saving money, but is probably more trouble than it’s worth if you’re doing serious work.

Watch for Abrasion and Exposed Wires

When it comes to local external damage, a hose can be fixed with a cover repair if you catch the problem early enough. If you immediately care for any scratch on the cover of a hydraulic or high-pressure hose, you can protect the reinforcement. All hoses have a protective cover that ensures the reinforcement wire doesn’t get damaged internally.

However, if you ignore scratches or dents, they can corrode, which leads to either full replacement, splicing, or repairing. If you see an abrasion or exposed wires and are trying to hold off on a full replacement, you can add plastic spiral guards, metal spiral guards, or abrasion-resistant plastic sleeves to protect the area that is damaged. What’s important is that you protect the reinforcement wires from additional abrasion and corrosion.

Long-Shot Saves

Industrial steel millSituations, where you have to get your hose repaired right away, are common. Maybe your equipment has stopped right in the middle of a production run or during a harvest, and you can’t wait until the delivery of a new part. We understand. If it’s urgent, we find a way.

As an example, sometimes a hose and the port won’t be the same size. If there’s a small jump, say from 1 inch to 1.5 inches, we can find a fitting to reduce the size—but if it’s a big jump, like from 2 inches to half an inch, there’s a major mismatch. In a real emergency, we will fit a system with several stages of jumps from a larger to smaller or smaller to larger fitting. It’s not ideal, but if you’re really in a pinch, that is a repair that we’ve seen work at least temporarily until the system could be reconfigured.

A Hard Break: When It’s Time for a New Hose

When your hose is worn out from long-term, high-pressure use, it’s time to celebrate. You’ve gotten every last drop of use from your investment, and it’s time for a new hose. Wear and distortion can’t be fixed. When you have a hose, especially a hydraulic hose, the pressurizing and de-pressurizing of the tube eventually will reduce its ability to function and maintain high pressure. It’s worth remembering that there is no “forever hose” that lasts a lifetime. Even the highest quality hoses will wear out over extended use.

Conclusion

TCH Industries Hose Repair ShopIndustrial hoses and hydraulic hoses are designed for long-term use, and in many instances, replacement is a better option than fixing a hose. Hydraulic hose repair can extend the lifetime of a hose, get you out of a bind when something breaks down on a job site, or save a bit of money. Whatever the need, our service center is designed to get you back up and running when anything breaks down. The Hose Pros are standing by to help!

TCH Industries

We. Are. Hosers.

Our focus and obsession is the distribution and fabrication of hose for industry and hose related products. Founded nearly 40 years ago, we are proudly owned and operated by the same family. Our manufacturing partners are some of the biggest and best names: Eaton, Parker, Dixon Valve, Hose Master, Brennen, Hannay Reels, and many others.

In short, we are a customer-centric hose company filled with happy professionals who can help you meet all your hose related needs. If you have any questions, please reach out to us by filling out the form below!

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Most Common Types of Industrial Hoses

Most Common Types of Industrial Hoses

Industrial Hoses

Industrial Hose

To hose industry insiders, the term ‘industrial hose’ is a broad term encompassing everything that isn’t metal, Teflon, hydraulic, and composite hose. Others say it’s all hose except for hydraulic hose. For people outside of the hose industry, ‘industrial hose’ seems to refer to any and every hose: a heavy-duty 4-wire hydraulic hose, a large-bore stainless hose; these could easily be referred to as an industrial hose from someone who doesn’t directly deal with hose for industry on a consistent basis.  

When someone is in need of industrial hoses, the specific application is generally what drives the title of the type of hose that is requested. They need a brewery hose, a chemical hose, steam hose, or an air hose. Oftentimes, the end-user of hoses isn’t necessarily using the term ‘industrial hose,’ but the specific use the hose was designed for.  

For most manufacturers, if you crack open their catalogue, you’ll typically find a remarkably similar layout of their industrial hose offering. Though this can make things easier when comparing manufacturers, we’re still talking about catalogues that are oftentimes four- to five-hundred pages long. There are tons of options.  

We’re going to make understanding the options easier to chew. 

Air & Multi-Purpose Hose

Industrial Air HoseAt the high-pressure end of the spectrum, you’re going to find steel-braided, nitrile hose that will handle pressures up to 1,500 psi air. Keep in mind that this is extremely high for an air hose. These types of hoses will typically be seen at heavy construction sites, mines, quarries, and plants/mills. From there, we work our way into the ‘medium-duty’ hoses. These hoses typically have nitrile tubes and covers for good oil resistance, fabric braid reinforcement and handle pressures between 400-600 psi. In the 200-300 psi range, we have air and multi-purpose hoses for shop air and water, which are offered with EPDM rubber with lesser oil resistance and lower cost, or nitrile and other oil resistant materials. 

Push-On Hose

Another favorite offering in this category is push-on hose. This hose uses a special barbed end that does not require a ferrule or clamp. These types of hose are usually really flexible, even when cold, and can be field repaired with only a knife to cut the end off since no ferrule is required. 

When choosing your air or multi-purpose hose, it really comes down to two important questions: do you have a high-, medium-, or low-pressure requirement? And what kind of requirement do you need for oil resistance? As always, it’s important to keep in mind specialty requirements, such as heavy-duty abrasion resistant covers like carboxylated nitrile found on the Bulldog Gold hose. These hoses are going to take a beating, and we’ll make sure they’re able to handle it. 

Chemical Hose

Chemical hoses are rather consistent throughout various manufacturers, and you’re essentially dealing with hose tubes that are UHMW or XLPE. There of course are others like FEP, high-purity EPDM for acid, and Nylon tube paint hoses are often listed in the chemical section too, but they are a specific use, specialty hose. Once you’ve decided which tube option suits your specific application, you’ll need to cover your pressure and temperature requirements. Various chemicals will need a certain tube material to handle the temperature or high-pressure chemical applications; though, high pressure and chemicals aren’t generally associated. 

Considering the use for your hose, is it suction and discharge or transfer only, you may need to consider the necessity of a helical wire. So that’s about it for most chemical applications: choose UHMW or XLPE for the tube and then decide if a helical wire is necessary. When you break down chemical hose into the few necessary requirements, it is pretty straight forward. 

Food & Beverage

We can break down food and beverage hoses relatively easilyWe’re essentially left with the decision of whether our hose is transferring an oil/fatty product or non-fatty food product. There is, of course, dry material transfer, which will have a natural rubber tube; though, with wet food applications we typically see chlorobutyl tubes for non-fatty, and mainly nitrile for oil/fatty substances.

Industrial Food and Beverage Hose

Once you’ve decided the tube material necessary for the product being transferred, we’ll need to make sure the hose cover is suitable to the environment. In the food industry, we’ll obviously see environments where these fatty and oily substances will be coming into contact with the exterior of the hose as well. A nitrile cover will be perfect for these instances. Whereas EPDM covers will handle situations where the environment is not oily. 

Like chemical hoses, our next consideration is temperature. With food, we’ll see some remarkably high temperatures mixed with the necessity of steam and CIP (clean-in-place) cleaningThese hoses will need to be able to withstand short bursts of steam for cleaning.  

In the beverage market, we see more food-grade PVC and specialty hoses for wineries and breweries, which are typically chlorobutyl. Again, just as food transfer, we need to consider sanitary and cleaning requirements for beverage hoses. 

Lastly, as we discussed with both food and beverage, cleanliness is a crucial element in a food processing environment. Washdown hoses are designed to handle pressure for cleaning, sometimes over 1,250 psi. 

At this point, we’re beginning to see that, even with so many different applications and specific industries within industrial hose, we’re dealing with a similar formula when calling out the perfect spec for our job. 

LPG Hose

Liquefied petroleum gas (or propane delivery) hoses tend to be a breed of their own. In this category, it’s important to note the certification requirements. The first is UL21. This indicates Underwriters Laboratories ensures safety, security, quality, and performance expectations of the hose. There’s also CGA Type 1—Canadian Gas Association—which serves as the voice of Canada’s natural gas and delivery industry. 

Industrial Compressed Gas HoseWe tend to see LPG hoses for applications such as grills, heaters, tow motors, construction, and residential use. For these applications, hoses are constructed with multiple textile plies of reinforcement for flexibility and kink resistance, and a perforated cover resistant to mild chemicals, oil, and ozone.  

When working with natural gas, we’re talking about miniscule molecules that can permeate standard rubber hose construction. As pressure increases, so will the rate of permeation, and the accumulation of natural gas can lead to dangerous consequences, proving the importance of selecting the proper hose construction for your LPG requirements. 

Material Handling

Applications for the transfer of dry or abrasive substances, such as sandblasting and concrete or asphalt transfer, require specific hose construction to handle prolonged abrasion during use. Material handling hoses are almost always made of natural rubber or SBR (styrene butadiene rubber). We’re no longer dealing with oil and oil resistance; instead, our most important consideration is now abrasion and choosing a thick tube to handle it. Secondly, our assembly construction will tend to differ with the type of substances transferred in material handling applications. Because of the highly abrasive materials, these assemblies should have a smooth transition between the tube of the hose and its end, which is why we usually internally expand ends on material handling assemblies. Otherwise, the abrasive material will eat away at the hose end until there is no hose barb left.  

Hot Air Blower hose is a specialty hose in the material handling category. Hot air reacts with hose materials much differently than ambient air. These hoses not only handle the higher temperatures of air, but they will also handle them consistently. Hot air can wreak havoc on standard hose materials.

Petroleum Transport

Nine times out of ten, petroleum transport hoses will have a nitrile tube and cover. Nitrile handles petroleum better than any of its counterparts, and, as you can imagine, where there’s petroleum being transferred, chances are there’s going to be petroleum encountering the outside of the hose as well. As with any application, you’re left with determining size, pressure, and temperature ratings of your application. 

Now, another consideration—depending on the system you’re working with—is the bend radius requirement of your assembly. If you find yourself needing more flexibility, corrugated covers increase ease of bending because of the shape of the cover. The material of the assembly will stay the same regardless.

PVC Hose

Industrial PVC HosePVC (polyvinyl chloride) hoses see an awful lot of uses. Applications such as potable water, beverage dispensing, chemical dispensing, multipurpose air, and water, and many, many more. PVC is in a category all its own that reaches into a lot of the categories discussed prior, so what we see is a category not defined by its use, but rather its material.  

Layflat Hose

A popular type of PVC hose is layflat hose. The hose can ‘lay flat’ because it has no helical wire and is only used in discharge or positive pressure applications. These are easy to roll up and transport and found in agriculture, construction, industry, and mining.

Steam Hose

Steam hose, to an extent, runs the gamut when it comes to construction: there’s EPDM, nitrile in instances where oil resistance is needed, and chlorobutyl in more premium varieties, like when you need a hose that is going to stand the test of time. Most of these will handle temperatures north of 406°F for saturated steam and 450°F for superheated steam, with pressures up to 250 psi. on average.  

Due to the dangerous nature of steam at higher temperatures and pressures, this is one of the few hose applications where we see a safety factor of 10:1 vs the standard 4:1. Steam can be incredibly dangerous. Depending on the type, temperature, and saturation, steam isn’t always visible, so an increased safety factor is prudent.

Water Hose

Industrial Water HoseThis may seem like a rather straightforward category of industrial hose. To an extent, it can be. Water hose is generally made from one of three materials: EPDM or SBR for suction and PVC for discharge. For the most part, EPDM is the most common tube for water hose, especially when the hose is being used as a transfer hose. If your application is suction, your hose will require a helical wire to prevent the hose from collapsing. 

Through experience—and, yes, failure—we’ve learned that you need to be extra careful when it comes to temperature ratings of water hoses. If you have an application where the temperature is anywhere near the upper limit of your hose (for example: a hose rated up to 180°F, and your application reaches 170°F), you want to move to a hose designed to handle a higher temperature.

Welding Hoses

Welding Hose

Welding hoses are possibly the easiest to visually identify. You have green hose for oxygen, and a red hose for burning gas. The hose commonly comes as twin-line; however, you can buy these lines individually. Welding hoses are rated to either Grade-T, which has greater oil resistance (in a steel mill or a shop), or Grade-R, which will have reduced resistances to oil.  

Needless to say—though, we’ll say it anyway—when dealing with something that can be as dangerous as burning hose, it’s important to know your application and the environment in which these hoses are being used to ensure safety. When it comes down to it, choosing a welding hose isn’t much more complicated than deciding whether you need Grade-T or Grade-R. We carry Grade-T for most calls. 

Hopefully, this overview of industrial hose helped ease some confusion on the seemingly limitless options out there. Remember that most hoses are called out by their application: Steam hose, cement hose, brewery hose etc. If your application is a little less straightforward think of it in terms of construction. 

  1. What tube material will handle the media and temperature? 
  2. What reinforcement is required? Steel braid, textile spiral, helical wire for suction? 
  3. What cover will protect the reinforcement and handle the environmental conditions best? 

Once you answer these three questions you will be well on your way. After that, you can always call The Hose Pros at TCH and we’ll think through it with you. 

TCH Industries

We. Are. Hosers.

Our focus and obsession is the distribution and fabrication of hose for industry and hose related products. Founded nearly 40 years ago, we are proudly owned and operated by the same family. Our manufacturing partners are some of the biggest and best names: Eaton, Parker, Dixon Valve, Hose Master, Brennen, Hannay Reels, and many others.

In short, we are a customer-centric hose company filled with happy professionals who can help you meet all your hose related needs. If you have any questions, please reach out to us by filling out the form below!

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

 

Hose Pros 101: The Basics – What Goser Teaches Your First Day on the Job

Hose Pros 101: The Basics – What Goser Teaches Your First Day on the Job

Hose Pros

Hose Pros 101

Do you need to learn the basics of hose and how they’re used in industry? Maybe you need to train a new maintenance technician, maybe you need an engineer fresh out of college to understand how hydraulic hose systems work, or maybe you’re just curious and want to know about hose. This article is for you. In fact, we just hired an engineer with 20 years’ experience, and even he can learn something from this article. When it comes to the hose industry, understanding the various applications and hose constructions is vital to speccing the proper hose for your job.

Hose Construction

A hose is commonly made up of a tube, reinforcement, and a cover. This is a technicality, but if there is no reinforcement, then it’s just called tube or tubing. This is most seen with plastics. But if it’s got reinforcement, it’s a hose, and it’s what we’re talking about in this article.

Hose is typically broken into five categories: hydraulic, industrial, metal, Teflon (PTFE, fluorocarbon tube), and composite. Metal, Teflon, and composite are designated by their construction. Metal is made entirely of stainless steel or other non-corrosive metals, Teflon is made of Teflon, and composite is hose made of distinct, individual layers.

Hose Construction

Tube

​Working our way from the inside out, the tube’s job is to convey material, so it must be chemically compatible with what’s going through the hose and able to handle specific temperatures. It also must be nearly impermeable and capable of holding pressure. I say “nearly impermeable” because all material permeates at some rate. Think about your car tires. They hold air for months, but eventually need filled up to keep them at the right pressure. This is the permeation we’re talking about. It’s not often an issue with hose, but it’s something to be aware of. Metal is the closest to impermeable and some plastics perform well too. 

Reinforcement

The tube is supported by the reinforcement, which is the backbone of hose, and supplies its strength and pressure capability. It comes in many shapes, sizes, and materials, the most of common of which are high tensile steel wire, textiles, and synthetics. Some specialty materials even include Kevlar, the stuff they make bullet proof vests from. It is wrapped around the hose in either a braided or spiraled configuration. This allows the hose to hold pressure that is both pushing out radially and axially. 

Axial Radial Drawing

Braid and spiral reinforcement give the hose positive pressure carrying capability, while a helix works in the other direction, when there is a negative pressure in the hose. A helix is made of metal or hard plastic and acts to keep the hose round when the pressure inside is acting to collapse the hose, especially important in suction applications.

Cover

The cover is applied over the reinforcement and acts to protect it from abrasion and corrosion. Covers must be able to withstand outside temperatures, abrasion, impact, ozone, industrial chemicals, and anything else that can harm the reinforcement. A good example of the importance of the cover is a hydraulic hose with a small nick in the cover, which may not seem like a big deal … until later that year when the steel braid rusts and becomes weak from corrosion. When that hose blows, it will blow at the spot that’s been damaged.

Covers are oftentimes supplemented with added accessories like fiberglass and silicone sleeves for temperature, or plastic or steel wrap to aid in abrasion resistance. Whatever part of the environment may harm your hose needs accounted for, and the cover is what is going to protect it. We can always add layers of protection if the off-the-shelf construction is not enough.

Metal and Teflon hose have no cover by design. They use a stainless-steel braid reinforcement so corrosion is rarely a concern. Since it is metal on the outside, people often think of it as a “tough” hose. Don’t be fooled by this misconception. Those wires are tiny, maybe .015” thick and sometimes less. If you let a metal hose drag on the concrete and those wires get ground from .015” to .005”, then guess where the hose will break … right there at the spot it was dragged. 

ID / OD

Hose is defined by its I.D., or inside diameter. For example, a 1” hose has a 1” inside diameter. When measured with calipers it will be pretty close to 1.00”. I say this because other industrial materials like tube and pipe are different. 1” pipe is neither 1” I.D. or 1” O.D. (outside diameter), but it’s close, 1.05” for Sch. 40 pipe I.D. and a 1.315” O.D. Tube, as we mentioned earlier, is measured by its O.D.

When we talk about hose size, especially hydraulic hose, we talk in terms of 16ths. A -12 hose, read “dash twelve”, is ¾” because 12/16=3/4.

Parker Hose Size

OD is important because, when coupled with I.D., it gives us the wall thickness of the hose. Wall thickness is important because we use it to determine crimp diameters for industrial hose assemblies, where the fabrication is part science, part art, because the fabricator is determining the crimp size, and it can be different on the same hose assembly. Yes, you read that correctly. Wall thickness can vary enough throughout the hose that crimps made on two ends of one hose can have differing crimp diameters, while still maintaining the same compression ratio. Compression ratio is how much we compress the wall of the hose between the ferrule and the hose barb. Compressions of as little as 12% and as much as 22% are not uncommon. This is where the art part comes in to play, knowing when to be closer to 12% or closer to 22%. Things like the hardness of the hose compound and how the hose reacts when crimped need to be considered. Some larger diameter hoses can vary by ⅛” wall thickness in the same hose.

For hydraulic hose, it must be precise and consistent, because the specs for crimp diameters have a tolerance of +/- .005”. This implies the I.D./O.D. are kept to a tight tolerance so the crimps can also be held to a tight tolerance.

A Hose for Every Application

When you start looking through hose catalogs, one thing becomes apparent very quickly … there seems to be a hose for every application. In a hydraulic hose catalog, there are textile reinforced and steel reinforced hose constructions—one wire, two wire, four wire and six wire—rubber compounds for high heat and compounds for the Arctic, and compounds for corrosive hydraulic fluid, and on and on. And that’s just the hydraulic hose catalog. Then there’s the Industrial hose catalog, it has WAY MORE options for specific applications: steam, superheated steam, water suction, water discharge, air, high pressure air, sand blast, concrete … you get what I’m saying. The catalog is huge, and they all have a specific construction to address a specific application.

STAMPED – Selecting the Right Hose

We use the acronym S.T.A.M.P.E.D. to help determine which hose is the best one for a given application. Size, Temperature, Application, Media, Pressure, Ends, Details. If you can answer all those criteria, then you will be well on your way to the best hose. Check out our full blog post to get details.

A Word on Pressure and Working Pressure

The hose industry typically uses a safety factor based on burst pressure to determine a hose’s working pressure. The most common safety factor is 4:1. This means a 4,000-psi hose will burst at over 16,000 psi in a test. Other common safety factors are

  • 10:1 for steam
  • 3:1 for water
  • 2:1 for hydraulic jacks

Manufactures will also play with safety factors to make their hose appear “better” or more capable than a competitor’s hose. It’s not frequent, but it’s definitely common. Be aware that sometimes the same hose (essentially) produced by two different manufacturers can have different working pressures, because one tests this way and the other that way, or they have engineering departments that simply take a different approach. What I’m saying is it’s not black and white, sometimes it’s gray.

Hose Life

Like any industrial product, a hose has a life expectancy. Some applications may only give the user a few weeks or months, like carbon injector hose or abrasive material handling. The application chews up the tube so fast it’s normal to have to replace it regularly. When the finance people see the frequency of replacement, they begin pushing for other solutions like ceramic lined tubes that are crazy expensive, but worth it, because they extend the life of the hose. Other factors, like temperature and corrosion, will also shorten the life of a hose. Another situation, sometimes unexpected, is when you max out two constraints of the hose, such as pressure and temperature. If you run the hose at max pressure and max temperature (or any other maxed out condition) it seems to really reduce life expectancy. Specs do not exist independently. If you’re pushing it on more than one aspect of the hose, consider upgrading to get more life.

Safety

It goes without saying that hose safety, proper construction, and specification are important, but let’s say it. Some applications are obviously dangerous: hazardous chemical transfer, bull hose on a compressor, hydraulic hose on a lift supporting a worker, to name a few. But even a ⅜” air line in a garage can whip if an end blows off and it can hit you pretty hard. At the beginning of a hose’s life it needs to be specced right and built properly. Once in use it needs to be examined regularly and taken out of service once there is damage or after its known service life is up.

Hope you found this article valuable and enjoyed Hoser’s Hose Pro insights.

TCH Industries

We. Are. Hosers.

Our focus and obsession is the distribution and fabrication of hose for industry and hose related products. Founded nearly 40 years ago, we are proudly owned and operated by the same family. Our manufacturing partners are some of the biggest and best names: Eaton, Parker, Dixon Valve, Hose Master, Brennen, Hannay Reels, and many others.

In short, we are a customer-centric hose company filled with happy professionals who can help you meet all your hose related needs. If you have any questions, please reach out to us by filling out the form below!

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

 

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