Hose Repair: Tips to Extend Hose Life Before Buying a New One

Hose Repair: Tips to Extend Hose Life Before Buying a New One

Leaking Garden Hose

Industrial Hose & Hydraulic Hose Repair

There are many reasons for repairing your high-quality hoses and hydraulic hoses rather than simply buying a new one. First, hoses and fittings can be expensive equipment, so repair is often a more economical option than buying a new one. Another reason for repairing a hose is that often you’re in a time-critical jam or can’t wait for a new hose, such as when your equipment has broken down on-site during a construction or farming operation. If you need to get up and running right away, fixing a hydraulic hose may be your best option, so you’ll probably find yourself running to the nearest hose repair shop.

Types of Damage

When it comes to industrial hoses, the types of damage fall into four basic categories:

  1. Damage immediately behind the hose end: Anywhere you have a crimp, or banded connection naturally undergoes more stress when there’s any movement on the hose.
  2. Local external damage: Such as a scratch, dent, or impact damage.
  3. Overall external wear due to dragging: For example, in cleaning applications where the hose is regularly moved around and dragged on the ground or concrete. The other cause of external abrasion is simply the constant vibration of the hose in high-pressure applications. The vibrations from the pump cause it to rub on the ground and wear the outer coating. There’s not much that can be done to prevent this kind of damage—it’s the nature of this type of application. 
  4. Long-term use fatigue: When your hose fails because it’s gotten old with use, you know you’ve gotten the maximum lifetime out of the hose.

Replacing the Crimp

It’s simple to replace a hose-end—but there are two caveats to this. First of all, it shortens the hose’s length, so it’s only helpful in installments where you can afford to have a slightly shorter hose.

Eaton Weatherhead Hose BundleSecondly, particularly in fixing a hydraulic hose, it’s necessary to have the proper crimp spec. The crimp fitting is designed to meet SAE standards that guarantee the fit between the hose and end so the hose can withstand the high pressure required. What this means is that you need to have the ends from the same manufacturer as the hose. If you go to an Eaton Weatherhead manufacturer or supplier like TCH, we can only fit the Eaton Weatherhead hoses with Weatherhead ends. If you have Parker, Gates, or any other type of hose, you need to find a repair house that features those parts. Even the smallest deviation in the connection between the hose and end can cause a deterioration in performance, or even worse, be hazardous.

Often, we get people in our shop who want us to crimp to a different hose type, but it simply won’t work. Any decent repair technician will send you away if they don’t have the right match. Before you take a trip down to the repair shop, make sure they stock the manufacturer you need.

Making a Break

Tractor with industrial water hoseOften hoses will incur damage from impacts, such as a tractor running over the hose, a falling rock, or other impact types. The easiest way to deal with that kind of damage is by cutting and mending the hose. There are two ways to cut and mend a high-pressure or hydraulic hose.

The first way is to use a mender by putting a physical piece inside the hose and crimping it on both ends. The other way to mend a hose is to put two threaded pieces on either side of the splice and put a coupler in the middle. Sometimes people try to repair their hoses with duct tape. That might reduce the spraying, but at 3000 PSI of pressured liquid inside of your hose, obviously, duct tape isn’t a safe solution.

The second method is to splice and repair when the damage gets too bad in one particular spot. It’s possible to splice multiple times, though it’s not ideal. Every time you splice and fix a hydraulic hose or any hose, it degrades the hose slightly, both in terms of the length and in terms of the pressure loss of the liquid running through the hose. For basic cleaning applications, that can be fine. But if you are doing high-pressure spraying for sanitation, you really don’t want to splice more than once. Why? As the hose’s function is reduced, the water pressure goes down, and the time for cleaning goes up.

We’ve seen hoses with as many as six splice and repair joints, which may seem like it’s saving money, but is probably more trouble than it’s worth if you’re doing serious work.

Watch for Abrasion and Exposed Wires

When it comes to local external damage, a hose can be fixed with a cover repair if you catch the problem early enough. If you immediately care for any scratch on the cover of a hydraulic or high-pressure hose, you can protect the reinforcement. All hoses have a protective cover that ensures the reinforcement wire doesn’t get damaged internally.

However, if you ignore scratches or dents, they can corrode, which leads to either full replacement, splicing, or repairing. If you see an abrasion or exposed wires and are trying to hold off on a full replacement, you can add plastic spiral guards, metal spiral guards, or abrasion-resistant plastic sleeves to protect the area that is damaged. What’s important is that you protect the reinforcement wires from additional abrasion and corrosion.

Long-Shot Saves

Industrial steel millSituations, where you have to get your hose repaired right away, are common. Maybe your equipment has stopped right in the middle of a production run or during a harvest, and you can’t wait until the delivery of a new part. We understand. If it’s urgent, we find a way.

As an example, sometimes a hose and the port won’t be the same size. If there’s a small jump, say from 1 inch to 1.5 inches, we can find a fitting to reduce the size—but if it’s a big jump, like from 2 inches to half an inch, there’s a major mismatch. In a real emergency, we will fit a system with several stages of jumps from a larger to smaller or smaller to larger fitting. It’s not ideal, but if you’re really in a pinch, that is a repair that we’ve seen work at least temporarily until the system could be reconfigured.

A Hard Break: When It’s Time for a New Hose

When your hose is worn out from long-term, high-pressure use, it’s time to celebrate. You’ve gotten every last drop of use from your investment, and it’s time for a new hose. Wear and distortion can’t be fixed. When you have a hose, especially a hydraulic hose, the pressurizing and de-pressurizing of the tube eventually will reduce its ability to function and maintain high pressure. It’s worth remembering that there is no “forever hose” that lasts a lifetime. Even the highest quality hoses will wear out over extended use.

Conclusion

TCH Industries Hose Repair ShopIndustrial hoses and hydraulic hoses are designed for long-term use, and in many instances, replacement is a better option than fixing a hose. Hydraulic hose repair can extend the lifetime of a hose, get you out of a bind when something breaks down on a job site, or save a bit of money. Whatever the need, our service center is designed to get you back up and running when anything breaks down. The Hose Pros are standing by to help!

TCH Industries

We. Are. Hosers.

Our focus and obsession is the distribution and fabrication of hose for industry and hose related products. Founded nearly 40 years ago, we are proudly owned and operated by the same family. Our manufacturing partners are some of the biggest and best names: Eaton, Parker, Dixon Valve, Hose Master, Brennen, Hannay Reels, and many others.

In short, we are a customer-centric hose company filled with happy professionals who can help you meet all your hose related needs. If you have any questions, please reach out to us by filling out the form below!

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

 

Most Common Types of Industrial Hoses

Most Common Types of Industrial Hoses

Industrial Hoses

Industrial Hose

To hose industry insiders, the term ‘industrial hose’ is a broad term encompassing everything that isn’t metal, Teflon, hydraulic, and composite hose. Others say it’s all hose except for hydraulic hose. For people outside of the hose industry, ‘industrial hose’ seems to refer to any and every hose: a heavy-duty 4-wire hydraulic hose, a large-bore stainless hose; these could easily be referred to as an industrial hose from someone who doesn’t directly deal with hose for industry on a consistent basis.  

When someone is in need of industrial hoses, the specific application is generally what drives the title of the type of hose that is requested. They need a brewery hose, a chemical hose, steam hose, or an air hose. Oftentimes, the end-user of hoses isn’t necessarily using the term ‘industrial hose,’ but the specific use the hose was designed for.  

For most manufacturers, if you crack open their catalogue, you’ll typically find a remarkably similar layout of their industrial hose offering. Though this can make things easier when comparing manufacturers, we’re still talking about catalogues that are oftentimes four- to five-hundred pages long. There are tons of options.  

We’re going to make understanding the options easier to chew. 

Air & Multi-Purpose Hose

Industrial Air HoseAt the high-pressure end of the spectrum, you’re going to find steel-braided, nitrile hose that will handle pressures up to 1,500 psi air. Keep in mind that this is extremely high for an air hose. These types of hoses will typically be seen at heavy construction sites, mines, quarries, and plants/mills. From there, we work our way into the ‘medium-duty’ hoses. These hoses typically have nitrile tubes and covers for good oil resistance, fabric braid reinforcement and handle pressures between 400-600 psi. In the 200-300 psi range, we have air and multi-purpose hoses for shop air and water, which are offered with EPDM rubber with lesser oil resistance and lower cost, or nitrile and other oil resistant materials. 

Push-On Hose

Another favorite offering in this category is push-on hose. This hose uses a special barbed end that does not require a ferrule or clamp. These types of hose are usually really flexible, even when cold, and can be field repaired with only a knife to cut the end off since no ferrule is required. 

When choosing your air or multi-purpose hose, it really comes down to two important questions: do you have a high-, medium-, or low-pressure requirement? And what kind of requirement do you need for oil resistance? As always, it’s important to keep in mind specialty requirements, such as heavy-duty abrasion resistant covers like carboxylated nitrile found on the Bulldog Gold hose. These hoses are going to take a beating, and we’ll make sure they’re able to handle it. 

Chemical Hose

Chemical hoses are rather consistent throughout various manufacturers, and you’re essentially dealing with hose tubes that are UHMW or XLPE. There of course are others like FEP, high-purity EPDM for acid, and Nylon tube paint hoses are often listed in the chemical section too, but they are a specific use, specialty hose. Once you’ve decided which tube option suits your specific application, you’ll need to cover your pressure and temperature requirements. Various chemicals will need a certain tube material to handle the temperature or high-pressure chemical applications; though, high pressure and chemicals aren’t generally associated. 

Considering the use for your hose, is it suction and discharge or transfer only, you may need to consider the necessity of a helical wire. So that’s about it for most chemical applications: choose UHMW or XLPE for the tube and then decide if a helical wire is necessary. When you break down chemical hose into the few necessary requirements, it is pretty straight forward. 

Food & Beverage

We can break down food and beverage hoses relatively easilyWe’re essentially left with the decision of whether our hose is transferring an oil/fatty product or non-fatty food product. There is, of course, dry material transfer, which will have a natural rubber tube; though, with wet food applications we typically see chlorobutyl tubes for non-fatty, and mainly nitrile for oil/fatty substances.

Industrial Food and Beverage Hose

Once you’ve decided the tube material necessary for the product being transferred, we’ll need to make sure the hose cover is suitable to the environment. In the food industry, we’ll obviously see environments where these fatty and oily substances will be coming into contact with the exterior of the hose as well. A nitrile cover will be perfect for these instances. Whereas EPDM covers will handle situations where the environment is not oily. 

Like chemical hoses, our next consideration is temperature. With food, we’ll see some remarkably high temperatures mixed with the necessity of steam and CIP (clean-in-place) cleaningThese hoses will need to be able to withstand short bursts of steam for cleaning.  

In the beverage market, we see more food-grade PVC and specialty hoses for wineries and breweries, which are typically chlorobutyl. Again, just as food transfer, we need to consider sanitary and cleaning requirements for beverage hoses. 

Lastly, as we discussed with both food and beverage, cleanliness is a crucial element in a food processing environment. Washdown hoses are designed to handle pressure for cleaning, sometimes over 1,250 psi. 

At this point, we’re beginning to see that, even with so many different applications and specific industries within industrial hose, we’re dealing with a similar formula when calling out the perfect spec for our job. 

LPG Hose

Liquefied petroleum gas (or propane delivery) hoses tend to be a breed of their own. In this category, it’s important to note the certification requirements. The first is UL21. This indicates Underwriters Laboratories ensures safety, security, quality, and performance expectations of the hose. There’s also CGA Type 1—Canadian Gas Association—which serves as the voice of Canada’s natural gas and delivery industry. 

Industrial Compressed Gas HoseWe tend to see LPG hoses for applications such as grills, heaters, tow motors, construction, and residential use. For these applications, hoses are constructed with multiple textile plies of reinforcement for flexibility and kink resistance, and a perforated cover resistant to mild chemicals, oil, and ozone.  

When working with natural gas, we’re talking about miniscule molecules that can permeate standard rubber hose construction. As pressure increases, so will the rate of permeation, and the accumulation of natural gas can lead to dangerous consequences, proving the importance of selecting the proper hose construction for your LPG requirements. 

Material Handling

Applications for the transfer of dry or abrasive substances, such as sandblasting and concrete or asphalt transfer, require specific hose construction to handle prolonged abrasion during use. Material handling hoses are almost always made of natural rubber or SBR (styrene butadiene rubber). We’re no longer dealing with oil and oil resistance; instead, our most important consideration is now abrasion and choosing a thick tube to handle it. Secondly, our assembly construction will tend to differ with the type of substances transferred in material handling applications. Because of the highly abrasive materials, these assemblies should have a smooth transition between the tube of the hose and its end, which is why we usually internally expand ends on material handling assemblies. Otherwise, the abrasive material will eat away at the hose end until there is no hose barb left.  

Hot Air Blower hose is a specialty hose in the material handling category. Hot air reacts with hose materials much differently than ambient air. These hoses not only handle the higher temperatures of air, but they will also handle them consistently. Hot air can wreak havoc on standard hose materials.

Petroleum Transport

Nine times out of ten, petroleum transport hoses will have a nitrile tube and cover. Nitrile handles petroleum better than any of its counterparts, and, as you can imagine, where there’s petroleum being transferred, chances are there’s going to be petroleum encountering the outside of the hose as well. As with any application, you’re left with determining size, pressure, and temperature ratings of your application. 

Now, another consideration—depending on the system you’re working with—is the bend radius requirement of your assembly. If you find yourself needing more flexibility, corrugated covers increase ease of bending because of the shape of the cover. The material of the assembly will stay the same regardless.

PVC Hose

Industrial PVC HosePVC (polyvinyl chloride) hoses see an awful lot of uses. Applications such as potable water, beverage dispensing, chemical dispensing, multipurpose air, and water, and many, many more. PVC is in a category all its own that reaches into a lot of the categories discussed prior, so what we see is a category not defined by its use, but rather its material.  

Layflat Hose

A popular type of PVC hose is layflat hose. The hose can ‘lay flat’ because it has no helical wire and is only used in discharge or positive pressure applications. These are easy to roll up and transport and found in agriculture, construction, industry, and mining.

Steam Hose

Steam hose, to an extent, runs the gamut when it comes to construction: there’s EPDM, nitrile in instances where oil resistance is needed, and chlorobutyl in more premium varieties, like when you need a hose that is going to stand the test of time. Most of these will handle temperatures north of 406°F for saturated steam and 450°F for superheated steam, with pressures up to 250 psi. on average.  

Due to the dangerous nature of steam at higher temperatures and pressures, this is one of the few hose applications where we see a safety factor of 10:1 vs the standard 4:1. Steam can be incredibly dangerous. Depending on the type, temperature, and saturation, steam isn’t always visible, so an increased safety factor is prudent.

Water Hose

Industrial Water HoseThis may seem like a rather straightforward category of industrial hose. To an extent, it can be. Water hose is generally made from one of three materials: EPDM or SBR for suction and PVC for discharge. For the most part, EPDM is the most common tube for water hose, especially when the hose is being used as a transfer hose. If your application is suction, your hose will require a helical wire to prevent the hose from collapsing. 

Through experience—and, yes, failure—we’ve learned that you need to be extra careful when it comes to temperature ratings of water hoses. If you have an application where the temperature is anywhere near the upper limit of your hose (for example: a hose rated up to 180°F, and your application reaches 170°F), you want to move to a hose designed to handle a higher temperature.

Welding Hoses

Welding Hose

Welding hoses are possibly the easiest to visually identify. You have green hose for oxygen, and a red hose for burning gas. The hose commonly comes as twin-line; however, you can buy these lines individually. Welding hoses are rated to either Grade-T, which has greater oil resistance (in a steel mill or a shop), or Grade-R, which will have reduced resistances to oil.  

Needless to say—though, we’ll say it anyway—when dealing with something that can be as dangerous as burning hose, it’s important to know your application and the environment in which these hoses are being used to ensure safety. When it comes down to it, choosing a welding hose isn’t much more complicated than deciding whether you need Grade-T or Grade-R. We carry Grade-T for most calls. 

Hopefully, this overview of industrial hose helped ease some confusion on the seemingly limitless options out there. Remember that most hoses are called out by their application: Steam hose, cement hose, brewery hose etc. If your application is a little less straightforward think of it in terms of construction. 

  1. What tube material will handle the media and temperature? 
  2. What reinforcement is required? Steel braid, textile spiral, helical wire for suction? 
  3. What cover will protect the reinforcement and handle the environmental conditions best? 

Once you answer these three questions you will be well on your way. After that, you can always call The Hose Pros at TCH and we’ll think through it with you. 

TCH Industries

We. Are. Hosers.

Our focus and obsession is the distribution and fabrication of hose for industry and hose related products. Founded nearly 40 years ago, we are proudly owned and operated by the same family. Our manufacturing partners are some of the biggest and best names: Eaton, Parker, Dixon Valve, Hose Master, Brennen, Hannay Reels, and many others.

In short, we are a customer-centric hose company filled with happy professionals who can help you meet all your hose related needs. If you have any questions, please reach out to us by filling out the form below!

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

 

Hose Pros 101: The Basics – What Goser Teaches Your First Day on the Job

Hose Pros 101: The Basics – What Goser Teaches Your First Day on the Job

Hose Pros

Hose Pros 101

Do you need to learn the basics of hose and how they’re used in industry? Maybe you need to train a new maintenance technician, maybe you need an engineer fresh out of college to understand how hydraulic hose systems work, or maybe you’re just curious and want to know about hose. This article is for you. In fact, we just hired an engineer with 20 years’ experience, and even he can learn something from this article. When it comes to the hose industry, understanding the various applications and hose constructions is vital to speccing the proper hose for your job.

Hose Construction

A hose is commonly made up of a tube, reinforcement, and a cover. This is a technicality, but if there is no reinforcement, then it’s just called tube or tubing. This is most seen with plastics. But if it’s got reinforcement, it’s a hose, and it’s what we’re talking about in this article.

Hose is typically broken into five categories: hydraulic, industrial, metal, Teflon (PTFE, fluorocarbon tube), and composite. Metal, Teflon, and composite are designated by their construction. Metal is made entirely of stainless steel or other non-corrosive metals, Teflon is made of Teflon, and composite is hose made of distinct, individual layers.

Hose Construction

Tube

​Working our way from the inside out, the tube’s job is to convey material, so it must be chemically compatible with what’s going through the hose and able to handle specific temperatures. It also must be nearly impermeable and capable of holding pressure. I say “nearly impermeable” because all material permeates at some rate. Think about your car tires. They hold air for months, but eventually need filled up to keep them at the right pressure. This is the permeation we’re talking about. It’s not often an issue with hose, but it’s something to be aware of. Metal is the closest to impermeable and some plastics perform well too. 

Reinforcement

The tube is supported by the reinforcement, which is the backbone of hose, and supplies its strength and pressure capability. It comes in many shapes, sizes, and materials, the most of common of which are high tensile steel wire, textiles, and synthetics. Some specialty materials even include Kevlar, the stuff they make bullet proof vests from. It is wrapped around the hose in either a braided or spiraled configuration. This allows the hose to hold pressure that is both pushing out radially and axially. 

Axial Radial Drawing

Braid and spiral reinforcement give the hose positive pressure carrying capability, while a helix works in the other direction, when there is a negative pressure in the hose. A helix is made of metal or hard plastic and acts to keep the hose round when the pressure inside is acting to collapse the hose, especially important in suction applications.

Cover

The cover is applied over the reinforcement and acts to protect it from abrasion and corrosion. Covers must be able to withstand outside temperatures, abrasion, impact, ozone, industrial chemicals, and anything else that can harm the reinforcement. A good example of the importance of the cover is a hydraulic hose with a small nick in the cover, which may not seem like a big deal … until later that year when the steel braid rusts and becomes weak from corrosion. When that hose blows, it will blow at the spot that’s been damaged.

Covers are oftentimes supplemented with added accessories like fiberglass and silicone sleeves for temperature, or plastic or steel wrap to aid in abrasion resistance. Whatever part of the environment may harm your hose needs accounted for, and the cover is what is going to protect it. We can always add layers of protection if the off-the-shelf construction is not enough.

Metal and Teflon hose have no cover by design. They use a stainless-steel braid reinforcement so corrosion is rarely a concern. Since it is metal on the outside, people often think of it as a “tough” hose. Don’t be fooled by this misconception. Those wires are tiny, maybe .015” thick and sometimes less. If you let a metal hose drag on the concrete and those wires get ground from .015” to .005”, then guess where the hose will break … right there at the spot it was dragged. 

ID / OD

Hose is defined by its I.D., or inside diameter. For example, a 1” hose has a 1” inside diameter. When measured with calipers it will be pretty close to 1.00”. I say this because other industrial materials like tube and pipe are different. 1” pipe is neither 1” I.D. or 1” O.D. (outside diameter), but it’s close, 1.05” for Sch. 40 pipe I.D. and a 1.315” O.D. Tube, as we mentioned earlier, is measured by its O.D.

When we talk about hose size, especially hydraulic hose, we talk in terms of 16ths. A -12 hose, read “dash twelve”, is ¾” because 12/16=3/4.

Parker Hose Size

OD is important because, when coupled with I.D., it gives us the wall thickness of the hose. Wall thickness is important because we use it to determine crimp diameters for industrial hose assemblies, where the fabrication is part science, part art, because the fabricator is determining the crimp size, and it can be different on the same hose assembly. Yes, you read that correctly. Wall thickness can vary enough throughout the hose that crimps made on two ends of one hose can have differing crimp diameters, while still maintaining the same compression ratio. Compression ratio is how much we compress the wall of the hose between the ferrule and the hose barb. Compressions of as little as 12% and as much as 22% are not uncommon. This is where the art part comes in to play, knowing when to be closer to 12% or closer to 22%. Things like the hardness of the hose compound and how the hose reacts when crimped need to be considered. Some larger diameter hoses can vary by ⅛” wall thickness in the same hose.

For hydraulic hose, it must be precise and consistent, because the specs for crimp diameters have a tolerance of +/- .005”. This implies the I.D./O.D. are kept to a tight tolerance so the crimps can also be held to a tight tolerance.

A Hose for Every Application

When you start looking through hose catalogs, one thing becomes apparent very quickly … there seems to be a hose for every application. In a hydraulic hose catalog, there are textile reinforced and steel reinforced hose constructions—one wire, two wire, four wire and six wire—rubber compounds for high heat and compounds for the Arctic, and compounds for corrosive hydraulic fluid, and on and on. And that’s just the hydraulic hose catalog. Then there’s the Industrial hose catalog, it has WAY MORE options for specific applications: steam, superheated steam, water suction, water discharge, air, high pressure air, sand blast, concrete … you get what I’m saying. The catalog is huge, and they all have a specific construction to address a specific application.

STAMPED – Selecting the Right Hose

We use the acronym S.T.A.M.P.E.D. to help determine which hose is the best one for a given application. Size, Temperature, Application, Media, Pressure, Ends, Details. If you can answer all those criteria, then you will be well on your way to the best hose. Check out our full blog post to get details.

A Word on Pressure and Working Pressure

The hose industry typically uses a safety factor based on burst pressure to determine a hose’s working pressure. The most common safety factor is 4:1. This means a 4,000-psi hose will burst at over 16,000 psi in a test. Other common safety factors are

  • 10:1 for steam
  • 3:1 for water
  • 2:1 for hydraulic jacks

Manufactures will also play with safety factors to make their hose appear “better” or more capable than a competitor’s hose. It’s not frequent, but it’s definitely common. Be aware that sometimes the same hose (essentially) produced by two different manufacturers can have different working pressures, because one tests this way and the other that way, or they have engineering departments that simply take a different approach. What I’m saying is it’s not black and white, sometimes it’s gray.

Hose Life

Like any industrial product, a hose has a life expectancy. Some applications may only give the user a few weeks or months, like carbon injector hose or abrasive material handling. The application chews up the tube so fast it’s normal to have to replace it regularly. When the finance people see the frequency of replacement, they begin pushing for other solutions like ceramic lined tubes that are crazy expensive, but worth it, because they extend the life of the hose. Other factors, like temperature and corrosion, will also shorten the life of a hose. Another situation, sometimes unexpected, is when you max out two constraints of the hose, such as pressure and temperature. If you run the hose at max pressure and max temperature (or any other maxed out condition) it seems to really reduce life expectancy. Specs do not exist independently. If you’re pushing it on more than one aspect of the hose, consider upgrading to get more life.

Safety

It goes without saying that hose safety, proper construction, and specification are important, but let’s say it. Some applications are obviously dangerous: hazardous chemical transfer, bull hose on a compressor, hydraulic hose on a lift supporting a worker, to name a few. But even a ⅜” air line in a garage can whip if an end blows off and it can hit you pretty hard. At the beginning of a hose’s life it needs to be specced right and built properly. Once in use it needs to be examined regularly and taken out of service once there is damage or after its known service life is up.

Hope you found this article valuable and enjoyed Hoser’s Hose Pro insights.

TCH Industries

We. Are. Hosers.

Our focus and obsession is the distribution and fabrication of hose for industry and hose related products. Founded nearly 40 years ago, we are proudly owned and operated by the same family. Our manufacturing partners are some of the biggest and best names: Eaton, Parker, Dixon Valve, Hose Master, Brennen, Hannay Reels, and many others.

In short, we are a customer-centric hose company filled with happy professionals who can help you meet all your hose related needs. If you have any questions, please reach out to us by filling out the form below!

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

 

Sanitary Hose and Fittings

Sanitary Hose and Fittings

sanitary hose

“Sanitary hose” and “sanitary fittings” are the most common terms used by our customers in the food, beverage, brewing, wine, cosmetics, and biopharmaceutical industries. The most common sanitary hose assembly is one finished with tri-clamp ends.

This style of connection spans across many industries. The dairy industry has its terms; brewers and vintners have their terms; your company may have its own way of saying it, but sanitary is the one we hear the most for these products. The common theme for hose and fittings in any of these industries is that the product must be made of a material that will not impart flavor or odor, is easily cleanable from a biological sense, and will not facilitate the growth of bacteria. Each of these industries has their own specific codes and standards that define the performance and material characteristics of their products. We’ll try and go over all of them for you.

Sanitary Tri Clamp

FDA – Food and Drug Administration

Food and Drug AdministrationIn the hose industry, we usually see FDA listed on transfer hoses for food related products. An FDA certification means the hose is made of food grade materials, which will not impact the odor and taste of the product being conveyed. For example, if you’re unloading yogurt that comes into contact with the tube of the hose, the flavor will be unimpacted, and your creamy, small-batch strawberry yogurt will taste just the way you made it.

However, this isn’t just about taste; it’s also about safety. Do you remember when our water bottles had those chemicals that were being leached out into our water? Well, FDA hoses won’t do that. They are designed to be in contact with compatible food products for extended periods without the hose impacting the food or the food impacting the hose. What do we mean when we say ‘compatible’? Some food applications can be harmful to assemblies if the right hose isn’t selected. Animal fats and oils need to be conveyed in a nitrile or other suitable tube, otherwise the fats and oils will react with the elastomer molecules and break down the tube of the hose.

Parker SW630

Cleaning is another aspect of the hose application where compatibility, both chemical and temperature, are important. CIP—clean-in-place—subjects a hose and components to a brief, high temperature cleaning. Other cleaning methods include using acid and alkaline based solutions to wash the hose. Under these circumstances, the hose needs to be able to withstand the type of cleaning required for that food application. If the hose is not compatible with the cleaning method, the hose will break down and eventually fail.

Choosing the right hose for your application will give you years of safe use, effective cleaning, and perfect taste. Make sure, when you call to order a hose, you not only tell us what the food product is, but also explain how the hose will be cleaned.

NSF

NSFThis used to stand for National Sanitation Foundation; but, in the 90s, the organization un-defined the acronym and expanded beyond food and water to include consumer products and the environment. A product can acquire NSF certification through a series of periodic audits, which typically includes material verification, manufacturing methods, facility inspection, and procedure verification. We’ll go over the two different NSF certifications commonly seen in the hose industry.

NSF-61 is a standard that applies to products that encounter potable water—[poh-tuh-buhl], with a long O, not [pot-a-buhl] … we’d be lying if we told you we didn’t have a company-wide debate over this—which means water suitable for drinking. The test for NSF-61 involves exposing the material to water and extracting and examining impurity levels to see if anything leached into the water. 

NSF-51 approves the materials and finishes food systems can be made from, such as plastics, tubing, sealants, gaskets, valves, etc. Anything intended for the construction of various food equipment and food contact applications falls under the standards of NSF-51. These requirements are based on FDA regulations.  

Certain applications can require both NSF certifications. The tubing used for soda and water dispensing at a restaurant should be made from an NSF-51 material and have undergone NSF-61 testing to ensure that some nasty molecule will not be leached out into your Coca-Cola. NSF recommends dual certifications where applicable. 

3A – Sanitary Standards Inc.

3A3A is another standards institute for the material and construction of processing equipment in the dairy, food, and biopharmaceuticals industries. 3A is most frequently used in dairy products, because two out of the four associations that comprise 3A are dairy related; but overall, their focus is sanitary process, regardless of industry.  

Kryptonite DC Comics

OTHER CERTIFICATIONS & REQUIREMENTS

RoHS – Reduction of Hazardous Substances. This is a directive from the European Union that prohibits the use of banned substances including lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, kryptonite and others.

USP Class VI – Certifies that the materials utilized are biologically compatible when tested to US Pharmacopoeia XXII, 1190. This is applicable to UHMW and PTFE lined hoses which are both plastic tubes.

Phthalate Free – Used primarily to make PVC softer, these plasticizers are being replaced and banned in the US, EU, and Canada.

How to Choose the Right Hose – Sanitary Hose

The fastest way to choose the right hose for your sanitary application is to call the Hose Pros at TCH. If you want to give it a try on you own, start with this: most manufacturers call out the use of the hose in the hose’s name or description, i.e., Brewers Discharge, Flour Hose, Potable Water Discharge, etc.

If your application is not so straight forward, here is a list of the common materials used in sanitary hose tubes and what they’re good for:

 

  • Nitrile – Oily and non-oily food transfer
  • EPDM – Non-oily food transfer
  • Natural Rubber – Dry bulk transfer
  • UHMW – Special applications requiring an ultra-smooth tube
  • PTFE – Special applications requiring an ultra-smooth tube and high temperature
  • Chlorobutyl – Non-oily beer, wine, and beverage
  • Neoprene – Potable water

When we build a sanitary hose assembly, there’s more than just certified components that go into making a proper assembly. The design of the hose stem should make for a smooth transition from the hose tube to the inside of the hose stem. This minimizes areas where food media can become trapped, which, in turn, can begin to harbor bacteria. The lubricant used in the insertion of the hose stem can also be specified NSF or FDA. These details need to be decided between the hose fabricator and the customer. They are not mandated by codes.

Another consideration is the surface finish of a fitting, which is determined by measuring the roughness of the surface. Fittings can be purchased polished or unpolished. Unpolished means standard industrial finish and does not necessarily meet a spec or standard. Polished indicates the part has undergone secondary processes to reduce surface roughness. You will need to know what level of finish your process requires. 3A typically requires a smoothness of 32 µin. (microinches) or less, and therefore requires polished ends and components. Biopharmaceuticals have their own set of standards, and you’ll see that each industry has differing levels of surface finish requirements. Your project might require a standard sanitary spec (unpolished), or it can require a sanitary spec at a very precise level. You just need to know what your project’s requirements are.

Hose Cleaning

The cleanliness of the assembly starts with the storage of its individual components. Hose ends should be individually wrapped to keep dust out, bulk hose should be capped, and the environment inside the fabrication facility should maintain a high cleanliness standard. Hose should be cut with a razor, rather than a rotating saw blade or band saw that will leave rubber or plastic residue. Once the assembly is complete, and hydrotesting has been performed, it is up to the fabricator and customer to determine who is responsible for the final cleaning, prior to installation. Most facilities already have a cleaning system and protocol, so they take the responsibility of cleaning before the initial installation.

There are a wide variety of governing bodies that set the standards when it comes to sanitary hose assemblies. At times, industry specifics will govern which hose is appropriate for the job. Your application will most certainly have its own specific requirements that the Hose Pros at TCH Industries will happily help with.

TCH Industries

We. Are. Hosers.

Our focus and obsession is the distribution and fabrication of hose for industry and hose related products. Founded nearly 40 years ago, we are proudly owned and operated by the same family. Our manufacturing partners are some of the biggest and best names: Eaton, Parker, Dixon Valve, Hose Master, Brennen, Hannay Reels, and many others.

In short, we are a customer-centric hose company filled with happy professionals who can help you meet all your hose related needs. If you have any questions, please reach out to us by filling out the form below!

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Types of Hydraulic Hoses

Types of Hydraulic Hoses

Hydraulic Hoses

Different Types of Hydraulic Hoses

Hydraulic Hoses or Systems are everywhere, you just need to know where to look. If you see orange construction barrels, then you’re also looking at equipment littered with hydraulic systems. Zero-turn lawn mower? Yep. Garbage truck? Yes, again. Brakes on your car, the tilt on your outboard motor, in a manufacturing plant… they are everywhere. 

Hydraulic hoses or systems use pressurized hydraulic fluid to output work in a mechanical system. Let’s go over some quick basics. Hydraulic fluid is an oil or water based incompressible fluid. Since it is incompressible, it can efficiently transfer energy from a pump and send it to a motor or cylinder. To describe what a hydraulic system is, let’s talk about the most simple one: a log splitter. A pump pulls fluid from the reservoir through a return line and pressurizes it. The pressurized fluid is sent through a 2-wire hose and acts on a cylinder with a wedge, pushing on a log until it splits. As the piston retracts, the cylinder pushes the fluid back through a return hose into the reservoir to cool and get ready for the next cycle. This system—reservoir, pump, cylinder and hose—is the hydraulic system.

Hydraulic Hoses

Hydraulic System

Knowing a few details (refer to our Stamped article) about your system will help you decide what hose is right. Choosing a hydraulic hose is not that complicated once you’ve begun to understand the various options and why they exist.

On the one hand, there are a ton of hydraulic hose specs made by any one manufacturer. Heck, there are 19 SAE 100R specs and a handful of European EN specs. On the other, it’s really pretty simple. You’ve essentially got three options: rubber with metal wires, thermoplastic with textile reinforcement, or Teflon with stainless braid. There are a few other application specific specs out there, and we’ll talk about them in a bit, but, really, those are your three options. After you know which you need, the rest kind of sorts itself out.

Before we get started, there are some general things you need to know. First, hydraulic hose part numbers indicate inside diameter using a system of 1/16ths. For instance, -04 is ¼” inside diameter, or I.D. (4/16=1/4), and -12 is ¾” (12/16=¾) and so on. So, a part number like H28006 is hose spec H280 and size 06, or ⅜” I.D.

Next, hydraulic hose is usually rated based on a 4:1 safety factor. This means 3,000-psi hose bursts at 12,000 psi or more. Exceptions include jack hose which often has a 2:1 safety factor, because it is a static and low stress application. Ask our Hose Pros if you’re concerned about safety factor.

The general construction of a hydraulic hose is tube, reinforcement, and cover. The tube is the inside of the hose that conveys the hydraulic fluid. Then, there is the reinforcement; this provides the strength and holds the pressure. Last is the cover. The cover’s job is to protect the reinforcement from abrasion and corrosion.

Hydraulic Hoses

Construction Types

There are three main construction types for the pressure side of a hydraulic system and one for the return side. Hoses for the pressure side of your system will usually be made of rubber, thermoplastic, or Teflon.

Check out our rubber catalog

Rubber

Rubber hydraulic hoses are usually made of nitrile rubber since it’s compatible with most hydraulic fluids. Rubber hoses can either have textile braid for lower pressure applications under 1,000 psi, or high tensile steel wire for pressures up to 7,000 psi and beyond. The wire reinforced variety is the most common. Constructions range from one layer up to six layers of reinforcement.

Hydraulic Hoses - hose assembly
  • 1 Wire Braid – Less common than 2-wire hose. Used in lower pressure hydraulic systems.
Hydraulic Hoses - hose assembly
  • 2 Wire Braid – Less common than 2-wire hose. Used in lower pressure hydraulic systems.
Hydraulic Hoses - hose assembly
  • 4 Wire SpiralTypically used in heavy equipment requiring very high pressure (4,000-6,000 psi). Good at handling impulse.
Hydraulic Hoses
  • 6 Wire Spiral – Usually reserved for large diameter and ultra-high pressure (up to 7,000 psi)

Covers are usually made of an engineered rubber good at withstanding the elements and abrasion. Some manufacturers produce hoses with especially tough covers for applications requiring extreme abrasion protection; these might have UHMW coatings to withstand aggressive abrasion and impact. If you want to see hydraulic hose with tough covers cutting down huge trees in seconds, and you have a few minutes to waste on clickbait, you will love this video, especially the machine at 7:30: 

Some specialty applications for rubber hydraulic hoses include designs for high temperature (300°F+) and low temperature (-70°F).

Thermoplastic

This construction is typically made of a nylon tube, synthetic fiber reinforcement, and a polyurethane cover. Thermoplastic hose is often used in general hydraulics, material handling, forklifts, and near electrical systems. It can handle pressures similar to 1- and 2-wire hoses but be installed in applications where a rubber hose with wire reinforcement would not work. The polyurethane cover performs very well when subjected to the abrasion of a sheave on a forklift. In situations where electricity is a concern, like in a bucket lift for repairing power lines, non-conductive, thermoplastic hose is perfect.

Hydraulic Hoses

Teflon or PTFE:

Made with a Teflon tube and stainless braid reinforcement, it does not require a cover because the stainless braid will not corrode under normal circumstances. Teflon hose is used in applications that require corrosion resistance, chemical compatibility, or where high temperature is a concern. It carries a 450°F rating.

Check out our Catalog Options

Some things to keep in mind when specifying Teflon hose concern size and bend radius. The size is usually 1/16” smaller than the part number indicates. For instance, -04 hose is 3/16” and -06 is 5/16”. So, just because your part number ends in 04 does not mean the hose is ¼”. This is true for all sizes. Regarding bend radius, remember that Teflon hose is a hard-plastic tube covered in braid. If you bend the hard-plastic tube until it kinks, you’ve now ruined your hose and created a weak spot. Be careful when routing in tight spaces.

Return – Hydraulic Hoses

Return line is a hydraulic hose that can handle suction and is returning the hydraulic fluid back to the beginning of the system. This style of hose is usually a rubber tube and cover with textile braid for positive pressure and a helical wire to allow for suction.

Truck Hose – Hydraulic Hoses

Truck hose is its own special category within the hydraulic hose family. SAE 100R5 defines it as a fabric cover, 1-wire hose used on many systems in on-highway vehicles. Like Teflon hose, truck hose sizing does not follow the standard 1/16th approach used by standard hydraulic hose. The actual hose ID is anywhere from a 1/16” to ⅛” smaller depending on size. Again, call the Hose Pros at TCH, and we’ll help you understand 100R5 hose.

This covers most of the basics of hydraulic hoses. If you ever need to dig deeper and get into the nitty gritty call one of our Hose Pros at TCH and we’ll be happy to help.

TCH Industries

We. Are. Hosers.

Our focus and obsession is the distribution and fabrication of hose for industry and hose related products. Founded nearly 40 years ago, we are proudly owned and operated by the same family. Our manufacturing partners are some of the biggest and best names: Eaton, Parker, Dixon Valve, Hose Master, Brennen, Hannay Reels, and many others.

In short, we are a customer-centric hose company filled with happy professionals who can help you meet all your hose related needs. If you have any questions, please reach out to us by filling out the form below!

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

 

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