Most Common Types of Industrial Hoses

Most Common Types of Industrial Hoses

Industrial Hoses

Industrial Hose

To hose industry insiders, the term ‘industrial hose’ is a broad term encompassing everything that isn’t metal, Teflon, hydraulic, and composite hose. Others say it’s all hose except for hydraulic hose. For people outside of the hose industry, ‘industrial hose’ seems to refer to any and every hose: a heavy-duty 4-wire hydraulic hose, a large-bore stainless hose; these could easily be referred to as an industrial hose from someone who doesn’t directly deal with hose for industry on a consistent basis.  

When someone is in need of industrial hoses, the specific application is generally what drives the title of the type of hose that is requested. They need a brewery hose, a chemical hose, steam hose, or an air hose. Oftentimes, the end-user of hoses isn’t necessarily using the term ‘industrial hose,’ but the specific use the hose was designed for.  

For most manufacturers, if you crack open their catalogue, you’ll typically find a remarkably similar layout of their industrial hose offering. Though this can make things easier when comparing manufacturers, we’re still talking about catalogues that are oftentimes four- to five-hundred pages long. There are tons of options.  

We’re going to make understanding the options easier to chew. 

Air & Multi-Purpose Hose

Industrial Air HoseAt the high-pressure end of the spectrum, you’re going to find steel-braided, nitrile hose that will handle pressures up to 1,500 psi air. Keep in mind that this is extremely high for an air hose. These types of hoses will typically be seen at heavy construction sites, mines, quarries, and plants/mills. From there, we work our way into the ‘medium-duty’ hoses. These hoses typically have nitrile tubes and covers for good oil resistance, fabric braid reinforcement and handle pressures between 400-600 psi. In the 200-300 psi range, we have air and multi-purpose hoses for shop air and water, which are offered with EPDM rubber with lesser oil resistance and lower cost, or nitrile and other oil resistant materials. 

Push-On Hose

Another favorite offering in this category is push-on hose. This hose uses a special barbed end that does not require a ferrule or clamp. These types of hose are usually really flexible, even when cold, and can be field repaired with only a knife to cut the end off since no ferrule is required. 

When choosing your air or multi-purpose hose, it really comes down to two important questions: do you have a high-, medium-, or low-pressure requirement? And what kind of requirement do you need for oil resistance? As always, it’s important to keep in mind specialty requirements, such as heavy-duty abrasion resistant covers like carboxylated nitrile found on the Bulldog Gold hose. These hoses are going to take a beating, and we’ll make sure they’re able to handle it. 

Chemical Hose

Chemical hoses are rather consistent throughout various manufacturers, and you’re essentially dealing with hose tubes that are UHMW or XLPE. There of course are others like FEP, high-purity EPDM for acid, and Nylon tube paint hoses are often listed in the chemical section too, but they are a specific use, specialty hose. Once you’ve decided which tube option suits your specific application, you’ll need to cover your pressure and temperature requirements. Various chemicals will need a certain tube material to handle the temperature or high-pressure chemical applications; though, high pressure and chemicals aren’t generally associated. 

Considering the use for your hose, is it suction and discharge or transfer only, you may need to consider the necessity of a helical wire. So that’s about it for most chemical applications: choose UHMW or XLPE for the tube and then decide if a helical wire is necessary. When you break down chemical hose into the few necessary requirements, it is pretty straight forward. 

Food & Beverage

We can break down food and beverage hoses relatively easilyWe’re essentially left with the decision of whether our hose is transferring an oil/fatty product or non-fatty food product. There is, of course, dry material transfer, which will have a natural rubber tube; though, with wet food applications we typically see chlorobutyl tubes for non-fatty, and mainly nitrile for oil/fatty substances.

Industrial Food and Beverage Hose

Once you’ve decided the tube material necessary for the product being transferred, we’ll need to make sure the hose cover is suitable to the environment. In the food industry, we’ll obviously see environments where these fatty and oily substances will be coming into contact with the exterior of the hose as well. A nitrile cover will be perfect for these instances. Whereas EPDM covers will handle situations where the environment is not oily. 

Like chemical hoses, our next consideration is temperature. With food, we’ll see some remarkably high temperatures mixed with the necessity of steam and CIP (clean-in-place) cleaningThese hoses will need to be able to withstand short bursts of steam for cleaning.  

In the beverage market, we see more food-grade PVC and specialty hoses for wineries and breweries, which are typically chlorobutyl. Again, just as food transfer, we need to consider sanitary and cleaning requirements for beverage hoses. 

Lastly, as we discussed with both food and beverage, cleanliness is a crucial element in a food processing environment. Washdown hoses are designed to handle pressure for cleaning, sometimes over 1,250 psi. 

At this point, we’re beginning to see that, even with so many different applications and specific industries within industrial hose, we’re dealing with a similar formula when calling out the perfect spec for our job. 

LPG Hose

Liquefied petroleum gas (or propane delivery) hoses tend to be a breed of their own. In this category, it’s important to note the certification requirements. The first is UL21. This indicates Underwriters Laboratories ensures safety, security, quality, and performance expectations of the hose. There’s also CGA Type 1—Canadian Gas Association—which serves as the voice of Canada’s natural gas and delivery industry. 

Industrial Compressed Gas HoseWe tend to see LPG hoses for applications such as grills, heaters, tow motors, construction, and residential use. For these applications, hoses are constructed with multiple textile plies of reinforcement for flexibility and kink resistance, and a perforated cover resistant to mild chemicals, oil, and ozone.  

When working with natural gas, we’re talking about miniscule molecules that can permeate standard rubber hose construction. As pressure increases, so will the rate of permeation, and the accumulation of natural gas can lead to dangerous consequences, proving the importance of selecting the proper hose construction for your LPG requirements. 

Material Handling

Applications for the transfer of dry or abrasive substances, such as sandblasting and concrete or asphalt transfer, require specific hose construction to handle prolonged abrasion during use. Material handling hoses are almost always made of natural rubber or SBR (styrene butadiene rubber). We’re no longer dealing with oil and oil resistance; instead, our most important consideration is now abrasion and choosing a thick tube to handle it. Secondly, our assembly construction will tend to differ with the type of substances transferred in material handling applications. Because of the highly abrasive materials, these assemblies should have a smooth transition between the tube of the hose and its end, which is why we usually internally expand ends on material handling assemblies. Otherwise, the abrasive material will eat away at the hose end until there is no hose barb left.  

Hot Air Blower hose is a specialty hose in the material handling category. Hot air reacts with hose materials much differently than ambient air. These hoses not only handle the higher temperatures of air, but they will also handle them consistently. Hot air can wreak havoc on standard hose materials.

Petroleum Transport

Nine times out of ten, petroleum transport hoses will have a nitrile tube and cover. Nitrile handles petroleum better than any of its counterparts, and, as you can imagine, where there’s petroleum being transferred, chances are there’s going to be petroleum encountering the outside of the hose as well. As with any application, you’re left with determining size, pressure, and temperature ratings of your application. 

Now, another consideration—depending on the system you’re working with—is the bend radius requirement of your assembly. If you find yourself needing more flexibility, corrugated covers increase ease of bending because of the shape of the cover. The material of the assembly will stay the same regardless.

PVC Hose

Industrial PVC HosePVC (polyvinyl chloride) hoses see an awful lot of uses. Applications such as potable water, beverage dispensing, chemical dispensing, multipurpose air, and water, and many, many more. PVC is in a category all its own that reaches into a lot of the categories discussed prior, so what we see is a category not defined by its use, but rather its material.  

Layflat Hose

A popular type of PVC hose is layflat hose. The hose can ‘lay flat’ because it has no helical wire and is only used in discharge or positive pressure applications. These are easy to roll up and transport and found in agriculture, construction, industry, and mining.

Steam Hose

Steam hose, to an extent, runs the gamut when it comes to construction: there’s EPDM, nitrile in instances where oil resistance is needed, and chlorobutyl in more premium varieties, like when you need a hose that is going to stand the test of time. Most of these will handle temperatures north of 406°F for saturated steam and 450°F for superheated steam, with pressures up to 250 psi. on average.  

Due to the dangerous nature of steam at higher temperatures and pressures, this is one of the few hose applications where we see a safety factor of 10:1 vs the standard 4:1. Steam can be incredibly dangerous. Depending on the type, temperature, and saturation, steam isn’t always visible, so an increased safety factor is prudent.

Water Hose

Industrial Water HoseThis may seem like a rather straightforward category of industrial hose. To an extent, it can be. Water hose is generally made from one of three materials: EPDM or SBR for suction and PVC for discharge. For the most part, EPDM is the most common tube for water hose, especially when the hose is being used as a transfer hose. If your application is suction, your hose will require a helical wire to prevent the hose from collapsing. 

Through experience—and, yes, failure—we’ve learned that you need to be extra careful when it comes to temperature ratings of water hoses. If you have an application where the temperature is anywhere near the upper limit of your hose (for example: a hose rated up to 180°F, and your application reaches 170°F), you want to move to a hose designed to handle a higher temperature.

Welding Hoses

Welding Hose

Welding hoses are possibly the easiest to visually identify. You have green hose for oxygen, and a red hose for burning gas. The hose commonly comes as twin-line; however, you can buy these lines individually. Welding hoses are rated to either Grade-T, which has greater oil resistance (in a steel mill or a shop), or Grade-R, which will have reduced resistances to oil.  

Needless to say—though, we’ll say it anyway—when dealing with something that can be as dangerous as burning hose, it’s important to know your application and the environment in which these hoses are being used to ensure safety. When it comes down to it, choosing a welding hose isn’t much more complicated than deciding whether you need Grade-T or Grade-R. We carry Grade-T for most calls. 

Hopefully, this overview of industrial hose helped ease some confusion on the seemingly limitless options out there. Remember that most hoses are called out by their application: Steam hose, cement hose, brewery hose etc. If your application is a little less straightforward think of it in terms of construction. 

  1. What tube material will handle the media and temperature? 
  2. What reinforcement is required? Steel braid, textile spiral, helical wire for suction? 
  3. What cover will protect the reinforcement and handle the environmental conditions best? 

Once you answer these three questions you will be well on your way. After that, you can always call The Hose Pros at TCH and we’ll think through it with you. 

TCH Industries

We. Are. Hosers.

Our focus and obsession is the distribution and fabrication of hose for industry and hose related products. Founded nearly 40 years ago, we are proudly owned and operated by the same family. Our manufacturing partners are some of the biggest and best names: Eaton, Parker, Dixon Valve, Hose Master, Brennen, Hannay Reels, and many others.

In short, we are a customer-centric hose company filled with happy professionals who can help you meet all your hose related needs. If you have any questions, please reach out to us by filling out the form below!

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Hose Pros 101: The Basics – What Goser Teaches Your First Day on the Job

Hose Pros 101: The Basics – What Goser Teaches Your First Day on the Job

Hose Pros

Hose Pros 101

Do you need to learn the basics of hose and how they’re used in industry? Maybe you need to train a new maintenance technician, maybe you need an engineer fresh out of college to understand how hydraulic hose systems work, or maybe you’re just curious and want to know about hose. This article is for you. In fact, we just hired an engineer with 20 years’ experience, and even he can learn something from this article. When it comes to the hose industry, understanding the various applications and hose constructions is vital to speccing the proper hose for your job.

Hose Construction

A hose is commonly made up of a tube, reinforcement, and a cover. This is a technicality, but if there is no reinforcement, then it’s just called tube or tubing. This is most seen with plastics. But if it’s got reinforcement, it’s a hose, and it’s what we’re talking about in this article.

Hose is typically broken into five categories: hydraulic, industrial, metal, Teflon (PTFE, fluorocarbon tube), and composite. Metal, Teflon, and composite are designated by their construction. Metal is made entirely of stainless steel or other non-corrosive metals, Teflon is made of Teflon, and composite is hose made of distinct, individual layers.

Hose Construction

Tube

​Working our way from the inside out, the tube’s job is to convey material, so it must be chemically compatible with what’s going through the hose and able to handle specific temperatures. It also must be nearly impermeable and capable of holding pressure. I say “nearly impermeable” because all material permeates at some rate. Think about your car tires. They hold air for months, but eventually need filled up to keep them at the right pressure. This is the permeation we’re talking about. It’s not often an issue with hose, but it’s something to be aware of. Metal is the closest to impermeable and some plastics perform well too. 

Reinforcement

The tube is supported by the reinforcement, which is the backbone of hose, and supplies its strength and pressure capability. It comes in many shapes, sizes, and materials, the most of common of which are high tensile steel wire, textiles, and synthetics. Some specialty materials even include Kevlar, the stuff they make bullet proof vests from. It is wrapped around the hose in either a braided or spiraled configuration. This allows the hose to hold pressure that is both pushing out radially and axially. 

Axial Radial Drawing

Braid and spiral reinforcement give the hose positive pressure carrying capability, while a helix works in the other direction, when there is a negative pressure in the hose. A helix is made of metal or hard plastic and acts to keep the hose round when the pressure inside is acting to collapse the hose, especially important in suction applications.

Cover

The cover is applied over the reinforcement and acts to protect it from abrasion and corrosion. Covers must be able to withstand outside temperatures, abrasion, impact, ozone, industrial chemicals, and anything else that can harm the reinforcement. A good example of the importance of the cover is a hydraulic hose with a small nick in the cover, which may not seem like a big deal … until later that year when the steel braid rusts and becomes weak from corrosion. When that hose blows, it will blow at the spot that’s been damaged.

Covers are oftentimes supplemented with added accessories like fiberglass and silicone sleeves for temperature, or plastic or steel wrap to aid in abrasion resistance. Whatever part of the environment may harm your hose needs accounted for, and the cover is what is going to protect it. We can always add layers of protection if the off-the-shelf construction is not enough.

Metal and Teflon hose have no cover by design. They use a stainless-steel braid reinforcement so corrosion is rarely a concern. Since it is metal on the outside, people often think of it as a “tough” hose. Don’t be fooled by this misconception. Those wires are tiny, maybe .015” thick and sometimes less. If you let a metal hose drag on the concrete and those wires get ground from .015” to .005”, then guess where the hose will break … right there at the spot it was dragged. 

ID / OD

Hose is defined by its I.D., or inside diameter. For example, a 1” hose has a 1” inside diameter. When measured with calipers it will be pretty close to 1.00”. I say this because other industrial materials like tube and pipe are different. 1” pipe is neither 1” I.D. or 1” O.D. (outside diameter), but it’s close, 1.05” for Sch. 40 pipe I.D. and a 1.315” O.D. Tube, as we mentioned earlier, is measured by its O.D.

When we talk about hose size, especially hydraulic hose, we talk in terms of 16ths. A -12 hose, read “dash twelve”, is ¾” because 12/16=3/4.

Parker Hose Size

OD is important because, when coupled with I.D., it gives us the wall thickness of the hose. Wall thickness is important because we use it to determine crimp diameters for industrial hose assemblies, where the fabrication is part science, part art, because the fabricator is determining the crimp size, and it can be different on the same hose assembly. Yes, you read that correctly. Wall thickness can vary enough throughout the hose that crimps made on two ends of one hose can have differing crimp diameters, while still maintaining the same compression ratio. Compression ratio is how much we compress the wall of the hose between the ferrule and the hose barb. Compressions of as little as 12% and as much as 22% are not uncommon. This is where the art part comes in to play, knowing when to be closer to 12% or closer to 22%. Things like the hardness of the hose compound and how the hose reacts when crimped need to be considered. Some larger diameter hoses can vary by ⅛” wall thickness in the same hose.

For hydraulic hose, it must be precise and consistent, because the specs for crimp diameters have a tolerance of +/- .005”. This implies the I.D./O.D. are kept to a tight tolerance so the crimps can also be held to a tight tolerance.

A Hose for Every Application

When you start looking through hose catalogs, one thing becomes apparent very quickly … there seems to be a hose for every application. In a hydraulic hose catalog, there are textile reinforced and steel reinforced hose constructions—one wire, two wire, four wire and six wire—rubber compounds for high heat and compounds for the Arctic, and compounds for corrosive hydraulic fluid, and on and on. And that’s just the hydraulic hose catalog. Then there’s the Industrial hose catalog, it has WAY MORE options for specific applications: steam, superheated steam, water suction, water discharge, air, high pressure air, sand blast, concrete … you get what I’m saying. The catalog is huge, and they all have a specific construction to address a specific application.

STAMPED – Selecting the Right Hose

We use the acronym S.T.A.M.P.E.D. to help determine which hose is the best one for a given application. Size, Temperature, Application, Media, Pressure, Ends, Details. If you can answer all those criteria, then you will be well on your way to the best hose. Check out our full blog post to get details.

A Word on Pressure and Working Pressure

The hose industry typically uses a safety factor based on burst pressure to determine a hose’s working pressure. The most common safety factor is 4:1. This means a 4,000-psi hose will burst at over 16,000 psi in a test. Other common safety factors are

  • 10:1 for steam
  • 3:1 for water
  • 2:1 for hydraulic jacks

Manufactures will also play with safety factors to make their hose appear “better” or more capable than a competitor’s hose. It’s not frequent, but it’s definitely common. Be aware that sometimes the same hose (essentially) produced by two different manufacturers can have different working pressures, because one tests this way and the other that way, or they have engineering departments that simply take a different approach. What I’m saying is it’s not black and white, sometimes it’s gray.

Hose Life

Like any industrial product, a hose has a life expectancy. Some applications may only give the user a few weeks or months, like carbon injector hose or abrasive material handling. The application chews up the tube so fast it’s normal to have to replace it regularly. When the finance people see the frequency of replacement, they begin pushing for other solutions like ceramic lined tubes that are crazy expensive, but worth it, because they extend the life of the hose. Other factors, like temperature and corrosion, will also shorten the life of a hose. Another situation, sometimes unexpected, is when you max out two constraints of the hose, such as pressure and temperature. If you run the hose at max pressure and max temperature (or any other maxed out condition) it seems to really reduce life expectancy. Specs do not exist independently. If you’re pushing it on more than one aspect of the hose, consider upgrading to get more life.

Safety

It goes without saying that hose safety, proper construction, and specification are important, but let’s say it. Some applications are obviously dangerous: hazardous chemical transfer, bull hose on a compressor, hydraulic hose on a lift supporting a worker, to name a few. But even a ⅜” air line in a garage can whip if an end blows off and it can hit you pretty hard. At the beginning of a hose’s life it needs to be specced right and built properly. Once in use it needs to be examined regularly and taken out of service once there is damage or after its known service life is up.

Hope you found this article valuable and enjoyed Hoser’s Hose Pro insights.

TCH Industries

We. Are. Hosers.

Our focus and obsession is the distribution and fabrication of hose for industry and hose related products. Founded nearly 40 years ago, we are proudly owned and operated by the same family. Our manufacturing partners are some of the biggest and best names: Eaton, Parker, Dixon Valve, Hose Master, Brennen, Hannay Reels, and many others.

In short, we are a customer-centric hose company filled with happy professionals who can help you meet all your hose related needs. If you have any questions, please reach out to us by filling out the form below!

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Sanitary Hose and Fittings

Sanitary Hose and Fittings

sanitary hose

“Sanitary hose” and “sanitary fittings” are the most common terms used by our customers in the food, beverage, brewing, wine, cosmetics, and biopharmaceutical industries. The most common sanitary hose assembly is one finished with tri-clamp ends.

This style of connection spans across many industries. The dairy industry has its terms; brewers and vintners have their terms; your company may have its own way of saying it, but sanitary is the one we hear the most for these products. The common theme for hose and fittings in any of these industries is that the product must be made of a material that will not impart flavor or odor, is easily cleanable from a biological sense, and will not facilitate the growth of bacteria. Each of these industries has their own specific codes and standards that define the performance and material characteristics of their products. We’ll try and go over all of them for you.

Sanitary Tri Clamp

FDA – Food and Drug Administration

Food and Drug AdministrationIn the hose industry, we usually see FDA listed on transfer hoses for food related products. An FDA certification means the hose is made of food grade materials, which will not impact the odor and taste of the product being conveyed. For example, if you’re unloading yogurt that comes into contact with the tube of the hose, the flavor will be unimpacted, and your creamy, small-batch strawberry yogurt will taste just the way you made it.

However, this isn’t just about taste; it’s also about safety. Do you remember when our water bottles had those chemicals that were being leached out into our water? Well, FDA hoses won’t do that. They are designed to be in contact with compatible food products for extended periods without the hose impacting the food or the food impacting the hose. What do we mean when we say ‘compatible’? Some food applications can be harmful to assemblies if the right hose isn’t selected. Animal fats and oils need to be conveyed in a nitrile or other suitable tube, otherwise the fats and oils will react with the elastomer molecules and break down the tube of the hose.

Parker SW630

Cleaning is another aspect of the hose application where compatibility, both chemical and temperature, are important. CIP—clean-in-place—subjects a hose and components to a brief, high temperature cleaning. Other cleaning methods include using acid and alkaline based solutions to wash the hose. Under these circumstances, the hose needs to be able to withstand the type of cleaning required for that food application. If the hose is not compatible with the cleaning method, the hose will break down and eventually fail.

Choosing the right hose for your application will give you years of safe use, effective cleaning, and perfect taste. Make sure, when you call to order a hose, you not only tell us what the food product is, but also explain how the hose will be cleaned.

NSF

NSFThis used to stand for National Sanitation Foundation; but, in the 90s, the organization un-defined the acronym and expanded beyond food and water to include consumer products and the environment. A product can acquire NSF certification through a series of periodic audits, which typically includes material verification, manufacturing methods, facility inspection, and procedure verification. We’ll go over the two different NSF certifications commonly seen in the hose industry.

NSF-61 is a standard that applies to products that encounter potable water—[poh-tuh-buhl], with a long O, not [pot-a-buhl] … we’d be lying if we told you we didn’t have a company-wide debate over this—which means water suitable for drinking. The test for NSF-61 involves exposing the material to water and extracting and examining impurity levels to see if anything leached into the water. 

NSF-51 approves the materials and finishes food systems can be made from, such as plastics, tubing, sealants, gaskets, valves, etc. Anything intended for the construction of various food equipment and food contact applications falls under the standards of NSF-51. These requirements are based on FDA regulations.  

Certain applications can require both NSF certifications. The tubing used for soda and water dispensing at a restaurant should be made from an NSF-51 material and have undergone NSF-61 testing to ensure that some nasty molecule will not be leached out into your Coca-Cola. NSF recommends dual certifications where applicable. 

3A – Sanitary Standards Inc.

3A3A is another standards institute for the material and construction of processing equipment in the dairy, food, and biopharmaceuticals industries. 3A is most frequently used in dairy products, because two out of the four associations that comprise 3A are dairy related; but overall, their focus is sanitary process, regardless of industry.  

Kryptonite DC Comics

OTHER CERTIFICATIONS & REQUIREMENTS

RoHS – Reduction of Hazardous Substances. This is a directive from the European Union that prohibits the use of banned substances including lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, kryptonite and others.

USP Class VI – Certifies that the materials utilized are biologically compatible when tested to US Pharmacopoeia XXII, 1190. This is applicable to UHMW and PTFE lined hoses which are both plastic tubes.

Phthalate Free – Used primarily to make PVC softer, these plasticizers are being replaced and banned in the US, EU, and Canada.

How to Choose the Right Hose – Sanitary Hose

The fastest way to choose the right hose for your sanitary application is to call the Hose Pros at TCH. If you want to give it a try on you own, start with this: most manufacturers call out the use of the hose in the hose’s name or description, i.e., Brewers Discharge, Flour Hose, Potable Water Discharge, etc.

If your application is not so straight forward, here is a list of the common materials used in sanitary hose tubes and what they’re good for:

 

  • Nitrile – Oily and non-oily food transfer
  • EPDM – Non-oily food transfer
  • Natural Rubber – Dry bulk transfer
  • UHMW – Special applications requiring an ultra-smooth tube
  • PTFE – Special applications requiring an ultra-smooth tube and high temperature
  • Chlorobutyl – Non-oily beer, wine, and beverage
  • Neoprene – Potable water

When we build a sanitary hose assembly, there’s more than just certified components that go into making a proper assembly. The design of the hose stem should make for a smooth transition from the hose tube to the inside of the hose stem. This minimizes areas where food media can become trapped, which, in turn, can begin to harbor bacteria. The lubricant used in the insertion of the hose stem can also be specified NSF or FDA. These details need to be decided between the hose fabricator and the customer. They are not mandated by codes.

Another consideration is the surface finish of a fitting, which is determined by measuring the roughness of the surface. Fittings can be purchased polished or unpolished. Unpolished means standard industrial finish and does not necessarily meet a spec or standard. Polished indicates the part has undergone secondary processes to reduce surface roughness. You will need to know what level of finish your process requires. 3A typically requires a smoothness of 32 µin. (microinches) or less, and therefore requires polished ends and components. Biopharmaceuticals have their own set of standards, and you’ll see that each industry has differing levels of surface finish requirements. Your project might require a standard sanitary spec (unpolished), or it can require a sanitary spec at a very precise level. You just need to know what your project’s requirements are.

Hose Cleaning

The cleanliness of the assembly starts with the storage of its individual components. Hose ends should be individually wrapped to keep dust out, bulk hose should be capped, and the environment inside the fabrication facility should maintain a high cleanliness standard. Hose should be cut with a razor, rather than a rotating saw blade or band saw that will leave rubber or plastic residue. Once the assembly is complete, and hydrotesting has been performed, it is up to the fabricator and customer to determine who is responsible for the final cleaning, prior to installation. Most facilities already have a cleaning system and protocol, so they take the responsibility of cleaning before the initial installation.

There are a wide variety of governing bodies that set the standards when it comes to sanitary hose assemblies. At times, industry specifics will govern which hose is appropriate for the job. Your application will most certainly have its own specific requirements that the Hose Pros at TCH Industries will happily help with.

TCH Industries

We. Are. Hosers.

Our focus and obsession is the distribution and fabrication of hose for industry and hose related products. Founded nearly 40 years ago, we are proudly owned and operated by the same family. Our manufacturing partners are some of the biggest and best names: Eaton, Parker, Dixon Valve, Hose Master, Brennen, Hannay Reels, and many others.

In short, we are a customer-centric hose company filled with happy professionals who can help you meet all your hose related needs. If you have any questions, please reach out to us by filling out the form below!

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

 

How to Design the Right Hose: S.T.A.M.P.E.D.

How to Design the Right Hose: S.T.A.M.P.E.D.

Hose Design & Hose Assembly

In order to design a cost-effective, long-lasting, and safe hose assembly, you need to understand a few things about hose design. Let’s face it: when deciding on a hose, the three factors that stand above the rest are safety, money, and longevity. Choosing the wrong hose can lead to failures in service, costing you major dollars and potential injuries on the job site.

Trust us, we’ve seen it.

When a hose fails, your job site shuts down, and hopefully no one was hurt. Maybe you have a spare, or for those of us not so prepared, now you need to call your local hose shop. You send one of your guys with the broken hose and get a new one made, while the other three guys in the crew play games on their phones. An hour later, your new hose arrives, and you spend the next half hour installing it and cleaning up.

In all reality, this is not a bad scenario compared to what it could be: a chemical hose leads to a spill with dangerous vapors; a high-temperature steam hose burns somebody; a hydraulic hose breaks and drops a load. It can be way worse than a few guys not working while a hose is being made.

You need to choose the right hose.

Hose industry insiders use an acronym called S.T.A.M.P.E.D: Size, Temperature, Application, Media/Material, Pressure, Ends, Details.

Size

Of course, this is first. Size is one of the most straight forward considerations when selecting a hose. Start with the ports you’re connecting to; if they’re both the same size, then choose a hose that matches. With differing port sizes, there is no standard rule. If flow rate is important to you–maybe you’re running air tools–then you may want to choose a hose size that matches the larger port.

Regarding length, it depends. Some hoses, like air and water hoses, might come in standard lengths of 25’, 50’, and 100’. If one of these is long enough for what you’re doing, then it’s the right length. Other times, you’re routing a hose inside of a machine, and it has to be exact. If it’s too short, it doesn’t reach, and if it’s too long, it rubs against adjacent components. In short—no pun intended—make sure it’s long enough, but not too long.

Temperature

Choosing the right material that can withstand the temperatures your hose will see is the difference between a hose that lasts years, or one that lasts for days. Temperature can shorten the lifespan just as quickly as abrasion or chemical incompatibility. Take a look at these common hose materials to see the wide range of temperatures they can handle:

  • PVC: 0 to +140°F
  • Standard Rubber: -40°F to +212°F
  • Engineered Rubber: -70°F to +302°F
  • Teflon: -65°F to +400°F
  • Silicone: -65°F to +500°F
  • Stainless Steel: below -238°F to +1500°F

This is why we have to start looking at a hose as having two environments: there’s one inside and one outside. On the two extremes, a cryogenic hose has to have a stainless-steel tube that can withstand extreme colds, while a furnace-door hose has to have a fiber glass cover to withstand red-hot steel just feet away. It’s important to be aware of both, but one will usually dominate your decision in selecting a particular hose.

Pressure

If you have a 2500 to 4000-psi pressure washer, then feel comfortable using a one-braid, 4000-psi hose. You don’t need to upgrade. More isn’t always better. Industrial-grade, one-braid pressure washer hoses are easier to handle than two-braid. While two-braid hoses are used in 5000 & 6000 psi applications where extra strength is required, they come at the cost of decreased flexibility and increased weight.

Hose Application—What Makes Your Hose Unique?

Luckily for you, so many hose products are categorized by their application: chemical hose, tank truck hose, brewery hose, air hose, the list goes on… and on. If you open up a catalog from any hose manufacturer, you’ll find a nearly endless list of common, application specific hoses. Other times, you need to tease out what’s driving your spec in a particular direction.   

You can measure a precise size, pressure, and temperature, but application can sometimes be a bit more nuanced. For instance, if you’re specifying a hose for adhesive, you are going to want a smooth, non-stick hose. You might choose a nylon hose, often times called a paint spray hose. In this instance, your paint spray hose is now an adhesive hose, and that’s ok. If you chose a Teflon hose for this application, that would work too. There isn’t always a silver bullet, and, often times, there’s more than one right answer.

hose assembly

Example 1:

The hydraulic lift on a utility truck fixing power lines should not use a wire-reinforced hydraulic hose; instead, the right choice is a non-conductive, thermoplastic hydraulic hose. This protects the utility worker and equipment from electric shock.

hose assembly

Example 2:

High-pressure, hydrogen gas in the heat of the desert. Thermoplastic hose can handle high-pressure gases, and they can handle desert heats. However, we’ve found that as the temperature rose in testing, the diffusion rate through this hose exceeded allowable rates and appeared as a leak. The hose was working properly, but the application didn’t fit, even though the pressure and temperature were in spec. In this case, a metal hose was a better choice because it had a zero-diffusion rate, regardless of temperature. 

Application is also why we choose accessories, which we’ll talk more about in the ‘Details’ section.

Media & Material

It’s important to know the media—what’s running through your hose—or the media that may come into contact with your hose from the outside, because it has to be compatible with the hose cover. When choosing a hose material, for both the tube and cover, make sure the hose material can handle the media it will come into contact with. If you have an acid-transfer application, you need a tube material that can handle acid. If you’re refurbishing a sandblaster, you need a tube that can handle abrasion. Yes, it’s that simple.

Pressure

Pressure is not just an ultimate number. It sounds straight forward, but there are a couple other considerations. Let’s get the obvious out of the way. If you have an application running a constant pressure without much fluctuation at room temperature, then you need to have a hose rated for that pressure.

Heavy construction equipment is a good example where pressure alone is not enough to choose the right hose. When choosing a hydraulic hose that will see impulse and pressure spikes, sometimes we select a spiral hose over a braided hose. Since braided hose is woven, the impulse and spikes force the wires to grind against themselves. Spiral construction allows the layers of reinforcement to flex without grinding against the next layer. This makes spiral hose perfect for heavy construction. 

Metal hose—stainless steel wire over a corrugated, stainless steel tube—requires special consideration for pressure de-rating. 

When impulse is present, we de-rate by half. If there are intense pressure spikes, we de-rate by 1/6th. For example, if a 600-psi hose is being used on a piston pump and will see impulse, we de-rate it to 300 psi. If that same 600-psi hose were used downstream of a valve and sees a pressure spike when the valve opens, it would be de-rated to 100 psi.

Temperature can have a huge impact on pressure rating, particularly in PVC and metal hose. As temperature goes up, strength goes down. For instance, a PVC hose gets an x.5 multiplier at 110°F. It loses half its strength at 40°F above room temperature! By the way, all catalog pressure ratings are assumed to be at 70°F. Metal hose has a much more gradual decline and can be used at very high temperatures. You just need to know the hose working pressure and temperature, and use this chart to determine the de-rated working pressure:

https://www.hosemaster.com/technical-information-flexible-metal-products/temperature-derating/

Side note—most hoses have a 4:1 safety factor. This means they burst at four times higher than their working pressure (3000 psi working pressure = 12000 psi burst). Certain specialty hoses, like steam hose and jack hose, use a different safety factor, but 4:1 is the norm.

Ends

You need to select hose ends that match the thread and connection style of your port and are made of a material compatible with your application/media. There are many, many connection styles: flange, quick disconnect, SAE thread, metric thread, and on and on. Common materials include plated carbon steel, 304 stainless, 316 stainless, brass, plastic, and even custom materials. To avoid getting into the weeds here, if you don’t know what end you need, call us!

Details

Yes, the industry struggles a little with what ‘D’ in S.T.A.M.P.E.D. means. ‘Delivery’ is the most common interpretation, but it’s better referred to as ‘Details’. It certainly includes delivery date, but it means so much more. It’s kind of intended to be a catch all for everything that makes your hose right. Does your hose need any of these?

  • Bend restrictors
  • Abrasion protection
  • Fire sleeve or thermal protection
  • Electrical conductivity
  • Testing & certifications
  • Tagging & labeling
  • Phase angle
  • Packaging
  • Cleaning

This is S.T.A.M.P.E.D. If you can respond to all these points, then you have the information needed to design the right assembly. If you want help, you can call the Hose Pros at TCH Industries, and we’ll guide you through the S.T.A.M.P.E.D.  process. Let our nearly four decades of experience work for you.

TCH Industries

We. Are. Hosers.

Our focus and obsession is the distribution and fabrication of hose for industry and hose related products. Founded nearly 40 years ago, we are proudly owned and operated by the same family. Our manufacturing partners are some of the biggest and best names: Eaton, Parker, Dixon Valve, Hose Master, Brennen, Hannay Reels, and many others.

In short, we are a customer-centric hose company filled with happy professionals who can help you meet all your hose related needs. If you have any questions, please reach out to us by filling out the form below!

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

 

Pressure Washer Hose Buyer’s Guide

Pressure Washer Hose Buyer’s Guide

Pressure washer hose in use

We know searching for the right pressure washer hose can be overwhelming. The first page of Google points you towards all the big box and online stores you can think of. Their options are fine for a casual user who wants to wash his car, but what if you need to something a little more industrial? There are a lot of options and considerations when choosing the right hose. This guide will teach you about them and help you understand what you need.

Is Leaving a Mark Avoidable? Technically, No.

Pressure washer hose is notorious for leaving marks on whatever you’re washing. Dragging a hose across a deck may not always leave a mark, but vibrations from a running pump, alongside the abrasion caused by frequent dragging, will definitely speed up the wear of the cover and, consequently, leave a mark on your driveway or deck.

On the bright side, markings can be reduced by using the right hose. Color, cover material, and proper use can help. Light colored hoses are the best option, with markings standing out less than their black counterparts. Our customers have had the most success with gray. We’ve tried black, blue, and white, all marking more than gray covers.

Synthetic rubbers have the best abrasion resistance, because they are specifically designed to be non-marking. Plastic hoses—like those found at Lowes and Home Depot—are fine when you need a light-duty hose, but they don’t hold up as well.

PowerKlean 4000 Pressure Washer Hose

Size and Length Matters… Duh

Choosing the right diameter is often driven by the port in the pump. Most people choose a 3/8” hose when they have a 3/8” port, a 1/4″ hose with a 1/4″ port, and so on. Using 3/8” hose will provide more pressure and more flow at the gun. This is most important with 1/4″ connections. Pressure drop in a 1/4″ hose can be nearly 400 psi, whereas a 3/8” hose would only give you a 50-psi pressure drop (at 3 gpm in a 100 ft hose).

Keep in mind: the longer the hose, the greater the pressure drop. We don’t want to raise needless concern here, but if you can get away with a 50-footer, don’t buy the 100. More import than pressure drop, longer hoses are hard to handle. If you’ve ever tried to coil a 100-footer with a gun on the end, you know exactly what we’re talking about. We recommend a reel for anything longer than 50 feet, especially if you’re a daily user.

Is It Time To Replace My Hose?

The most common indicator that it’s time to replace your hose is a damaged cover with exposed wire reinforcement. The cover’s job is to protect the wire from corrosion, which leads to reduced pressure as the reinforcement deteriorates. If you can feel a broken wire poking through the cover, it’s time for a new hose. A broken wire is a leak path for water, causing corrosion; and, more importantly, you’re asking for a nasty cut and a trip to the Minute Clinic for a Tetanus booster.

Trust us, we’ve learned the hard way.

Don’t forget to keep a close watch on the hose ends, as they can accumulate rust and calcification on the inside, leading to reduced flow.

Pressure

If you have a 2500 to 4000-psi pressure washer, then feel comfortable using a one-braid, 4000-psi hose. You don’t need to upgrade. More isn’t always better. Industrial-grade, one-braid pressure washer hoses are easier to handle than two-braid. While two-braid hoses are used in 5000 & 6000 psi applications where extra strength is required, they come at the cost of decreased flexibility and increased weight.

NPT Power Washer Fitting Drawing
14mm 15mm Power Washer Fitting

Which End Connection Do I Need?

Pressure washer connections typically are either Metric M22 X 1.5 (14mm tube is the most common), 3/8” NPT pipe thread, or straight-through quick connects.  The M22 male thread is found on the pump. From here there may be an adapter to 3/8” NPT or a quick disconnect. Make sure to use some kind of thread sealant like Teflon tape if you have NPT. NPT threads don’t seal by themselves and require help.

*Electric units sometimes have the M22 X 1.5, 15mm threads. There are two ways to determine if you have threads for 14mm or 15mm tubes. One is to measure the inside of the male connection after the taper using calipers. It will be very close to either 14mm or 15mm. The other is to measure the diameter of the male part in the middle of the female threads. This feature, usually with an O-ring, mates up with the taper inside the male threads. It will measure very close and just under 14mm or 15mm.

Cleaning with Chemicals, Detergents, & Hot Water

Sometimes, pressure alone isn’t enough. The surface you’re cleaning might require some extra elbow grease. If you use chemicals, detergents, or hot water, you need a hose that can handle it. Hoses made with plastic tubes are often times good with chemicals and detergents but don’t do well with hot water. Synthetic rubber is engineered to handle a wide range of industrial cleaners and handle hot water. Hoses rated to 311°F will provide the longest life if you routinely use a heater in your washer system. Heat and chemicals can quickly break down your hose.

Let me tell you a story:

We were once selling a “water cooling” hose to a steel mill. The application was only 160°F, so we chose a common water transfer hose rated for 180°F. This was the same rating as the equipment manufacturer’s hose, so we felt comfortable replicating the spec.

The manufacturer’s hose lasted three months, and so did ours.

At first, we didn’t even think temperature mattered; after all, our hose was rated for the application. After some investigation, we decided that temperature might be our culprit. We specced a 350°F hose ten years ago, and it’s still going strong. This taught us a valuable lesson: hot water can wreak havoc on your hose, and if you have a burner, you need a hose specifically designed for hot temperatures.

PowerKlean 4000

TCH has designed a hose from the ground up to address the needs of pressure washers all over. PowerKlean 4000 has all the best attributes combined into one hose. It’s a non-marking, high-temperature, light and flexible hose that handles all pressure washer applications up to 4000 psi. The PowerKlean 4000 comes in standard lengths of 50 and 100 feet, and we can accommodate any custom length you require, just call and get a quote.

  • 3/8” I.D.
  • 4000 psi
  • Gray synthetic, non-marking cover, synthetic tube
    • Resistant to weather, oil, and O-zone
  • 311°F/155°C
  • One-braid, steel-wire reinforcement

TCH Industries

We. Are. Hosers.

Our focus and obsession is the distribution and fabrication of hose for industry and hose related products. Founded nearly 40 years ago, we are proudly owned and operated by the same family. Our manufacturing partners are some of the biggest and best names: Eaton, Parker, Dixon Valve, Hose Master, Brennen, Hannay Reels, and many others.

In short, we are a customer-centric hose company filled with happy professionals who can help you meet all your hose related needs. If you have any questions, please reach out to us by filling out the form below!

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

 

Identifying the Right Hydraulic Hose for Your Application

Hydraulic hoses must be durable and long-lasting enough to handle the needs of the particular function. Hydraulic hoses, unlike many other industrial hoses, need substantial reinforcement to endure the significant pressures that are necessary to perform their job. Reinforcing support can come in many forms depending on the levels of pressure, materials, and other factors that the hose will be required to withstand.

Consider STAMPED When Selecting Hydraulic Hoses

When determining which hydraulic hoses and fittings will be right for your situation, TCH Industries of Twinsburg, Ohio, suggests considering the acronym “STAMPED.” Seven questions cued by each letter will help identify which hydraulic hose is right for your situation. These are:

  • S: Size and diameter of the hose. Not only does this refer to the internal diameter of the hose but also to the required length from port to port.
  • T: Temperature refers to the maximum and minimum temperatures that the hose will withstand during all parts of the process.
  • A: Applications refers to the actual use of the hose and equipment. Will this be for industrial use or injection molding, for example.
  • M: Media refers to the liquid, gas, or solid that will be conveyed. Different medias require different levels of strength to accommodate what will be moving within.
  • P: Pressure is a critical variable in hydraulics. Pressure is the force that moves and lifts, so factoring the degree of pressure that the hose will need to withstand is essential.
  • E: Ends of the hose will be determined by where the hose will connect. The origination and destination ports may be different so the assembly might require different connecting hardware.
  • D: Delivery dates may be requested. These may depend on testing, certification requirements and, perhaps, custom production times.

Dealing with High Pressure

Hydraulic hoses, more than any other, are expected to withstand higher-than-normal pressure while in full operation. As a result, added reinforcement becomes mandatory.

TCH Industries offers hydraulic hoses that can withstand up to 10,000 psi, working pressure, as well as other hoses, fittings, and accessories for low and medium pressure scenarios.

The type and degree of reinforcement are calculated by the working pressure of the hydraulic system. As the pressure increases, the PSI rating of the hose must increase as well.

Most hydraulic hose reinforcement material may be one of three types, although combinations of these are often used to bolster the pressure capacity. These materials are:

  • Braided synthetic textiles, wire, and other materials set in a crisscross, overlapping pattern that allows for flexibility and maximum strength.
  • Spiral Wrapping with wire, textiles, synthetic materials consisting of parallel, rather than overlapping reinforcement. This pattern strengthens the hose while allowing for lower flexibility.
  • Helical coil (a helix pattern) strengthens the hose to prevent it from collapsing inside when suction or a vacuum is applied. The coil is often used in conjunction with the braided textile reinforcement to manage both high and low-pressure situations.

Check with TCH Industries

For questions about any hydraulic or industrial hose applications, check out the TCH Industries website. For the past three decades, TCH Industries has helped many manufacturers, construction businesses, petrochemical companies, agricultural concerns, food processors, brewers, and others to solve their hydraulic and industrial hose requirements.

As members of the National Association of Hose and Accessories Distribution, the TCH employees adhere to ISO 9001-2015 Standards and possess the engineering expertise for any job.

If you should be in the Northern Ohio Region, stop by the TCH Hose Center at 2307 East Aurora Road, Twinsburg, Ohio, to discuss your needs.

Alternatively, phone the professionals at TCH Industries at +1-330-487-5155.

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